Water scarcity is the lack of sufficient available water resources to meet the demands of water usage within a region.
It already affects every continent and around 2.8 billion people around the world at least one month out of every year.
More than 1.2 billion people lack access to clean drinking water.
Water scarcity involves water stress, water shortage or deficits, and water crisis.
While the concept of water stress is relatively new, it is the difficulty of obtaining sources of fresh water for use during a period of time and may result in further depletion and deterioration of available water resources.
Water shortages may be caused by climate change, such as altered weather patterns including droughts or floods, increased pollution, and increased human demand and overuse of water.
A water crisis is a situation where the available potable, unpolluted water within a region is less than that region’s demand.
Water scarcity is being driven by two converging phenomena: growing freshwater use and depletion of usable freshwater resources.
Water scarcity can be a result of two mechanisms: physical (absolute) water scarcity and economic water scarcity, where physical water scarcity is a result of inadequate natural water resources to supply a region’s demand, and economic water scarcity is a result of poor management of the sufficient available water resources.
According to the United Nations Development Programme, the latter is found more often to be the cause of countries or regions experiencing water scarcity, as most countries or regions have enough water to meet household, industrial, agricultural, and environmental needs, but lack the means to provide it in an accessible manner.
The reduction of water scarcity is a goal of many countries and governments.
The UN recognizes the importance of reducing the number of people without sustainable access to clean water and sanitation.
The Millennium Development Goals within the United Nations Millennium Declaration state that by 2015 they resolve to “halve the proportion of people who are unable to reach or to afford safe drinking water.”
Water is the basic necessity of every human being. But, water scarcity is a major issue that is rising very rapidly in modern-day India.
The problem has become so severe that in many states the groundwater has almost dried up and people have to depend on water supply from other sources.
In addition, water is one of the most misused commodities that we still waste. It is the central point of our lives but not the central point of our focus.
In the past, people understand the value of water and plan their lives around it. Moreover, many civilizations bloom and lost on account of water. But, today we have knowledge but we still fail to understand the value of water.
Reason for Water Scarcity in India
Water scarcity is the cause of mismanagement and excess population growth of the water resources. Also, it is a man-made issue that continues to rise. Besides, some of the reasons for water scarcity are:
Wasteful use of water for Agriculture- India is one of the major food growers in the world. That produces tons of quantity of food to feed its population and export the surplus that is left.
In addition, producing this much food requires a lot of water too. The traditional method of irrigation wastes a lot of water due to evaporation, water conveyance, drainage, percolation, and the overuse of groundwater.
Besides, most of the areas in India use traditional irrigation techniques that stress the availability of water.