India, a land with vast geography where every hundred kilometers, there is a change in the language and culture of the people residing in that area; it is safe to say that the land has been influenced by its major civilization and, of course, a long duration of invasions from the foreigners and adaption of their culture to the indigenous civilization. The name India is derived from the name of a nurturing river, Indus. I would like to share my views about one of the oldest civilizations, the Indian civilization.
As we know, the birth of a civilization conveniently starts from the riverbanks of a flourishing river.
Similarly, we can date back the dawn of the Indian civilization to the river Indus and two major cities, Mohenja Daro and Harappa, in the third millennium BC. These cities were exceptionally well-planned cities with urban establishments, well-built homes with separate cooking areas and toilets, roads, underground drainage systems, centers like ports near the riverside, and irrigation systems. In the second millennium BC, the Indus civilization collapsed with a much suspicion of fluctuations of the
nature of the Indus river, which gave rise to the Vedic civilization with the migration of the Indo-Aryans into the north-west of the Indian landmass.
As the name suggests, in this period, the concept of Vedas and Varna was introduced. This period contributes to the present-day religions of the
Indian peninsula such as Hinduism based on Dharma, Kama, Artha, and Moksha and also Buddhism and Jainism. There are also principal contributions to literature such as Vedas, Upanishads, Mahabharata, and Ramayana. There were also new cultural and social practices like the caste system, which eventually caused the emergence of various kingdoms and states and political foundations that initiated developments of industrialization and technology, arithmetic system, astronomy, medicine, and better use of natural resources, and metallurgy.
Sushruta, the father of Indian medicine, is one of the founders of surgery and plastic surgery who deveOne of the famous mathematician and astronomers is Aryabhata, who discovered the concept of zero decimal systems and also presented the theory of heliostat.
Due to the fact that the Aryans worshipped stars and comets, some of the first astronomical concepts and lunar calendars can be dated back to the Vedas. And such immense developments and technological advancements brought a lot of attention to the rich land, which paved the way to quite a few.