Mobile Phones and Its Evolution

Introduction

A
mobile 
phone is a portable mode of telephone that can make and receive calls.
What makes it different from telephone is its wireless mode of communication as
it allows the user to move while communicating.  
Phones have come a long way since Bell made the first call. Now we have
cellphones which need no wires. The early cellphones were bulky, hard to use
and could do only calling. However with evolution of technology, we have now
camera, music and even internet in mobiles. While the radiations from mobile
have not been proved to be substantially harmful, judicious use of mobiles is
only wise.

The First Phone

 The first
cellular mobile [1] that came in practice was invented in 1980s by Motorola.
This device was named Motorola DynaTAC 8000X. it was the first commercialized
phone that was developed by efforts begun at Bell Labs, which first proposed
the idea of a cellular system in 1947. A series of phone was manufactured in US
from 1983 to 1994 under the name in United States of America. It was first
introduced in market on September 21, 1983.
It was having normal feature of receiving and
sending messages but it was a revolution then as it took communication to a new
height. Undoubtedly it was a revolution then as it changes the concept of
interaction accelerating development at an amazing scale.  Early Cellular phones used analog CDMA technology.
The first commercially available handheld cellular
phone, Motorola DynaTAC 8000x, which hit the market in 1983 weighed in at 2
pounds. It was priced at $3,995 and offered a half-hour of talk per batter
charge.

2G, GSM, mobile internet

CDMA technique of mobile continued its regime for
almost a decade and was later replaced by Global System for Mobile
Communications (GSM) in original termed as Group Special Mobile). It was the forerunner
of the mobile data bloom. It made its first debut in Finland and termed as 2G
network [2].
Phones like the 5110 and 3300 from NOKIA became
iconic and dominated the market during 1992. Till 90s Nokia was supreme leader
in the market. Primarily internet service was availed via GPRS (General Packet
Radio Service) and moving to the faster EDGE (Enhanced Data rates for GSM
Evolution, or EGPRS).

Camera phone

Cell phone later introduced a special feature in
2000 having tiny 0.11-0.35 megapixel resolutions cameras fitted in back cover
of the mobile. In India, the earliest camera phone was the Nokia 7650.

Bluetooth, WiFi

Bluetooth was another unique feature that is still popular.
With the help of Bluetooth user can send receive text and files, photos and videos?
There is no wire needed; only devices must interconnect across short distance.
The first Bluetooth-enabled phone became available in 2000 was Ericsson T36.

3G

 3G is termed
as the third-generation of mobile phone technology standards. The main service
that 3G is associated with wireless voice telephony and broadband wireless
data, all in a mobile environment. Initially introduced in japan, in 2001 [3],
it- is very fast, efficient mobile network. 
With its varying level of speed it allowed addition of numerous applications
on mobile phone making it multitasking device.
 For example,
using 2g to download a 10 MB video or song takes usually 10 to 12 minutes but
with 3G it can be done in a minute. This made the cellphone a utility device.

 Android

It’s an operating system owned by Google and came
into existence in 2005. It runs on majority of phone these days with its
upgraded version. The first Android touchscreen device (G1) came out in 2008
for the US market. It is the modified version of Linux [4].

4G or LTE

The first 4G network, made its début in 2009 in
Sweden based on the LTE standard. Airtel, a cellular company introduced 4G
network in India. 4g relies heavily on internet as most Indian have their
strong focus on music, video and social media.

The Present of Cellular Phones

Cellular phone is now the part and partial of our life.
With upcoming features and high focus on internet availability, gave a massive
boost to mobile usage. From android phone to I phone, the significant change in
cellphones has made it a strong utility device. From keypad to smartphone,
people have witnessed a considerable change in, appearance and efficacy of cell
phones.

The Criticism

Cellular phones work on high
frequency radio waves, which essentially are radiations. These radiations are
non-ionizing. And though it has not been substantially proved, the radiations
of mobile phones have been blamed to cause many diseases including cancer.
While these claims can be neither
accepted nor rejected [5], it is wise to use mobile phones
carefully. Avoid unnecessary usage, keep it at safe distance from body, use
hands-free whenever possible- are some best practices of cellphone use.