BLACK HOLE: The Singularity

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We are always fascinated by stars, planets, universe. We used to think that planets orbiting stars. But they might exist around the supermassive black hole too. People have floated ideas about planets orbiting smaller black holes before, but far less is known about supermassive black holes.

 In 1930 a 20-year-old Indian student named Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar was sailing from Madras to England to pursue his studies in astrophysics. During the voyage, he toyed with equations describing the stability of stars. And from a few lines of this mathematics, a momentous discovery emerged. Astronomers of the day had only a sketchy understanding of what makes stars tick. They knew that a star is a ball of hot gas engaging in a cosmic balancing act. There is a gas that tries to come out into the vacuum of the surrounding space, but gravity holds it back. In stars like the sun, an equilibrium is achieved, but only if the gas burns fuel to generate heat, which we now know is produced by nuclear reactions in the core. However, uncertainty surrounded the question of what happens when the fuel runs out. It seemed that gravity would inevitably gain the upper hand, causing the star to contract, and the smaller the radius, the fiercer the gravitational force would become at the surface. Astronomers had long been familiar with tiny stars known as white dwarfs, which contain a mass comparable to the sun but squashed into a volume roughly the size of the Earth. These burned-out stellar remnants are so dense that their atoms are pressed cheek by jowl. Further compression would mean the atoms themselves would be crushed, which was initially assumed to be impossible due to the laws of quantum physics. The outermost boundary of the hole is its event horizon.

The event horizon is a point of no return concentrated with energy. Quantum effects at the edge create streams of hot particles that radiate back out into the universe. This is called Hawking radiation, after the physicist Stephen Hawking, who predicted it. As you go deeper into the black hole, space becomes ever curvier until, at the center, it becomes infinitely curved. This is the singularity. Space and time cease to be meaningful ideas and the laws of physics as we know them — all of which require space and time.

It is said until one reaches the center, wouldn’t be able to understand the origin. There is nothing but darkness. The gravity is so strong there that even the light can’t sustain. The general relativity theory by Einstien is very applicable in discussing black hole. There is nothing more interesting and strange thing than the Black Hole theory. It also stretches people’s imagination and thinking capability to another level. Nothing can come out from the black hole’s gravitational force. It says many black holes are there which is surrounded by gas and dust. The stems of gas and dust move in such a way that it seems water is draining down. The particles of black holes run to an infinitely dense point which is very small in size. Many controversies are there among those one says our universe is a latecomer and it also says that there might have universe existed, which contained a black hole.

Categories: Science