Indian agriculture is being plagued by various problems. These problems directly and indirectly affect the life of a farmer. Farming practices and other activities of agriculture consume time as well as the efforts of a farmer.
We stock grains and use food throughout the year. However, we hardly give a thought to the hard-work and dedication of farmers involved in the production of the crops. These food crops are cultivated to contribute to the overall growth in the sector of agriculture. Nevertheless, the problems faced by farmers go unnoticed in the entire process of extracting food and harvesting crops.
One can address the solution only if the nature of the problem has been identified in the first place. The five main problems facing Indian agriculture are
- Uncertainty in the water supply
- Lack of remunerative income
- Fragmentation of land holdings
- Lack of access to formal credit and insurance
- Allied infrastructure ( R&D, market access and storage facilities)
These problems have been analysed and some recommendations have been made by the Swaminathan report. Its full implementation and necessary improvisations on the ground are perhaps the solutions to the problem.
Firstly, the nature of farming profession itself is risky because of uncertainty in water availability for agriculture. Almost 2/3rd of farmers in India are dependent on monsoon rains. The variation of rainfall in each region is also uncertain.
This can be addressed by expanding the irrigation and water conservation programmes. Completing the existing irrigation projects in time is also important. Use of groundwater is also an option. PMKSY (Pradhan Mantri Krishi Sinchayi Yojana) is one of the initiatives trying to address this problem.
How can the situation improve?
There have been various amazing and appealing theories that could work brilliantly well. But in a house made of cards, you want all card to be perfect.
Government should start off providing sufficient lands to farmers, some farmers have large bulk of land, which can be distributed to the needy, illegal lenders have to be penalised and governments and other rightful legal lenders should join hands for the cause of the farmer. More organic and healthy farming methods have to be invoked. Farmers have to be educated about the benefits of these. Seed quality has to governed and standardised. Brokers have to be driven to extinction.