Recently, UNICEF (United Nations Children’s Fund) and WHO (World Health Organization) states that 2.6 billion people lack adequate sanitation and around 1.1 billion people lack access to water supply. Myriads of water systems that were able to feed a growing population have come to an end. According to a recent study, it has been estimated that there will be no enough water left for domestic and industrial purpose by 2040. Two thirds of the world population might face huge water shortage by 2025. The shrinking clean water resources and growing demand will create negative implications for millions of people. There are many problems that can cause due to water shortage which ultimately affects the economic and social development of a country. They are;
This is one of the basic and unavoidable problem of water shortage. Water is very much essential for farming and grow crops. Shrinking water resources will make it difficult for food production. People can hardly survive without food and water. Water shortage causes starvation to both human beings and animals.
- Inadequate sanitation
Without water, there is no way to have a clean and hygienic atmosphere. Water is very much needed in order to clean our surroundings and the things we use. When people are not given access to clean water, it can lead to many diseases which can be very dangerous at times. People can easily cause disease from an unhygienic environment. It has been noted that nearly 1.6 million people die from diseases caused by lack of access of clean water, inadequate sanitation and pure hygiene.
- Increased global conflict
Fresh water resources are often shared by two or more countries. Some rivers and lakes will be overlapped between two countries. These countries will have a mutual understanding in the control and usage of water. The water scarcity can thus affect these countries at the same time. There are high chances to have international conflicts between these countries because of water shortage.
- Economic slowdown
More than 1.3 million worldwide jobs are heavily depended on water, including, agriculture, mining, and industries that range from paper to pharmaceuticals. Another 1.2 million jobs across world are moderately water depended. They do not use large quantities of water, such as industries that are related to construction, recreation and transportation. In short, 78 percentage of world jobs need water. Shortage of water can adversely affect these jobs which ultimately leads to an economic crisis.
- Energy shortages
Energy production is one of the world’s largest consumers of water resources. High quantity of water is needed in the production of electricity. Lack of water availability can affect the production of energy. Even though there are alternative energy sources such as wind and solar energy that require far less water to produce energy, it can make only up to a small fraction of energy production.