Modernism & Postmodernism – I

1922 – TS Elliot’s Wasteland & James Joyce’s Ulysses, Virginia Woolf – Jacob’s Room

1927 – Virginia Woolf – To the lighthouse.

1924 – Manifesto of the Surrealist Moment – Andre Bretel

1937 – Guernica – an anti-war painting. 

1914 – Stravinsky – Rise of Spring

Before Modernist was the Victorian Period, certain set of practices that was held sacrosanct up until the 1920’s, and everything that came out post 1920’s questioned everything. Linear chronological narrative was held sacrosanct for ages, and Elliot, James Joyce, Virginia Woolf were subservient to these narrative, alongside the impressionist, and the Credo of Modernism ‘make it new’ campaign by Ezra Pound; Modernist thinkers and philosophers stood for renovation and experiments, ‘Avant Garde’ ‘Sapere Aude’ (dare to know – courage to chart new territories) – after WWI. 

Theoretical justification form this break of the past ? Why ? The central image of modernism was a big large void that defined Modernism – Scepticism/disbelief/boredom/disillusionment/restrictive and that this is not ‘it’, and to replace it with something new; and everything that was held important started falling apart. The science that was to make everything better couldn’t hold, the centre was falling apart and one couldn’t make sense of it, here structuralism to poststructuralism – Derrida – meaning is differing. 

1990 – Virginia Woolf – Modern Fiction – in the pre-verbal or pre-literate thought your words are not linear, because it’s happening in your mind, therefore chronological pattern never works, it’s always in a flux, therefore she suggests “stream-of-consciousness” – a randomness of a narrative – no structure, a linear mode of storytelling – Virginia Woolf’s Mrs. Dalloway. 

Purist, Exclusivist/Universalist – to contain a single meaning – something that is questioned by Modernism. Meta Narratives/Grand Narratives that dictate the Euro – Centric understanding of the world, that make things/life better or easier – Marxism, Religion – Christianity – Redemption. 

Single Epistemology (the theory of knowledge) 

Post Colonial/Gender/Race came in complicating others. 

Moving the Centre by Ngugi wa thiongo, and Afrocentrism.