Biomass is waste material from plants or animals that is not used for food or feed; it can be waste from farming (like wheat stalks) or horticulture (yard waste), food processing (like corn cobs), animal farming (manure), or human waste from sewage plants.
In a direct combustion system, biomass is burned in a combustor or furnace to generate hot gas, which is fed into a boiler to generate steam, which is expanded through a steam turbine or steam engine to produce mechanical or electrical energy. Biomass is the boiler fuel that produces steam to operate a steam turbine and generator to make electricity. Several components required like furnace , boiler , pumps , fans , steams , turbines , generator, condenser, cooling tower .
India produces a huge quantity of biomass material in its agricultural, agro-industrial, and forestry operations. Over 500 million tonnes of agricultural and agro-industrial residue alone is generated every year. This quantity, in terms of heat content, is equivalent to about 175 million tonnes of oil. This quantity of biomass is sufficient to generate 15 000–25 000 MW of electrical power. Electricity can also be generated from biomass grown on wastelands, road and rail track side plantations, etc. The total electricity generation potential from biomass could reach a figure of about 100 000 MW.
- Carbon Neutrality : Biomass reduces this because the fuel is a natural part of the carbon cycle, unlike oil and other fossil fuels. The only carbon that is released into the atmosphere from biomass fuels is what was absorbed by the plants during their lifecycles.
- Less Dependency on Fossil Fuels
- Low Cost in Comparison To Fossil Fuels
- It Reduces Waste
- Availability : Much like with the sun and water, they can be found practically anywhere on the planet.
- It’s Not Completely Clean
- High Costs In Comparison To Other Alternatives
- Large space required
- It Requires Water
- It Has Inefficiencies