• Capital – Cairo.
• Borders with:
Libya – west
Sudan – south
Israel – Northeast
• Strategic location – Hub for trade routes between Africa, Europe, and Asia.
Enhanced with opening of the Suez Canal.
• Topography – dominated by the Nile River.
• Official language – Arabic
• 2013 – Overthrew its first democratically elected
• $12 billion aid package from Saudi Arabia, the
United Arab Emirates (UAE) and Kuwait. • West Asian deposits – grants for the import of petroleum products.
West Asian politics
• Influenced by the active role played by Saudi
Arabia and the UAE.
• Role of Egypt – reluctant.
• Qatar Blockade – role of Egypt was not much intense.
2017 – Arab transport blockade against Qatar in order to punish for its ties with radical Islamist groups.
To pressure reducing its diplomatic and economic relations with Iran.
• Egypt regained influence – Good and abled
management of its economy – facilitated Egypt.
Egyptian Economic reforms, 2015.
Foreign exchange reserves of $40 billion by 2018.
Growth rate of 5.6% in 2019.
Present Developments in West Asia
• Israel-Palestine conflict – negotiations by the
Egyptian diplomats and intelligence officers.
• Turkey – anxious to reopen its relations.
• Tripartite grouping
Intent to broaden regional engagements.
For Egypt – opportunity to move beyond its traditional dependence on Saudi Arabia
and to assert its leadership in the region.
Coalition – near-bordering land mass and a considerable domestic agricultural and
Extensive cooperation in energy connectivity
and reconstruction areas.
• Ethiopia’s “Grand Ethiopian Renaissance Dam” on the Blue Nile
Concern – source of around 95% of Egyptian fresh water.
Fear – Restrict this access to fresh water – “existential threat”.
Egypt tackling with
Diplomatic engagements with Sudan, Uganda, Burundi, Rwanda and Kenya.
Major dam and hydropower project in
• Strained relations with Turkey – Libyan peace
process and the East Mediterranean.
Delineated energy claims in the Mediterranean sea – in conflict with Turkey’s claims. • Present scenario of pandemic
Unemployment on a rise.
Economy – slowed down recovery.
Percentage of workers without adequate income increased.
Poverty rate – 2% higher than in 2015.
Concern – might compel Egypt to seek assistance from the Gulf States.