Earlier In china, one child policy was there which began in 1980 and was severely enforced until January 2016 when it was replaced by two-child policy.
China’s Communist Party Politburo meeting, headed by President Xi Jinping, declared on May 31,2021 that each couple in the nation will be allowed to have up to three children, a significant increase from the previous two-child restriction.
It was in response to the findings of the 2020 census, after Chinese mothers gave birth to just 12 million kids in 2020 and the global population increased to 1.412 billion in 2020 from 1.4 billion the previous year.
So therefore, As officials strive to resolve the country’s long-term demographic imbalances, Chinese couples will now be permitted to have up to three children. Supporting measures are also proposed which aims at easing the financial strain of raising children, including educational and housing expenditures. However, Existing exceptions to family planning, such as the lack of birth restrictions for some ethnic minority groups, remain in force. Couples that have more children than they are allowed risk significant fines, as well as unofficial consequences such as job loss, especially for those in the public sector.
Policymakers also stated that with addressing housing and school expenses they will also enhance maternity leave regulations, in order to reduce the costs of having children. But, administration made no specific promises on these topics, but did state that it would “protect the legitimate rights and interests of women in the workplace.”
The question now is why did the government modify the regulations in the first place. So, the government did so because its census shows long-standing demographic imbalances that might jeopardize the country’s economic viability, forcing Party officials to take action. Furthermore, unlike industrialized countries with low fertility rates, China remains a growing middle-income country with a limited social safety net. The fact that China does not accept large numbers of immigrants, domestic reproduction is even more important in maintaining the size of its workforce. Demographers predict that by 2050, the people over 60 years old will account for a quarter of the population because of which China’s economic growth and social services would be hampered by a declining working-age population and an increasing senior population. According to a research issued in 2019 by the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, urban pension funds might run out by 2035 owing to demographic issues. Also, The one-child policy also resulted in selective sex-based abortions, resulting in a long-term sex imbalance with 723.34 million males and 688.44 million women in 2020.
The reaction of people are very important on such issues. So Therefore, An online poll was taken shortly after the modification was revealed which showed that 90% of those polled stated they “would not contemplate” having three kids. In response to this, an independent political economist in Beijing said that The three-child policy may have limited appeal for China’s new ‘lying flat’ generation, but it may have some hold on others. He further added that to enhance people’s willingness to have more children, the government should work hard to reduce the burden of education, housing, and other things. However, young Chinese are unlikely to desire bigger families