Control of Air pollution

National air quality monitoring programme

  • Central pollution control board is executing a nationwide program of ambient air quality monitoring known as National air quality monitoring programme.
  • National Ambient Air Quality standards prescribed specific standards for residential, ruler, Industrialand other sensitive areas.
  • N. A. M. P, four air pollutants – Sulphur Dioxide, oxides of Nitrogen, suspended particulate matter and respirable suspended particulate matter (pm10) have been identified for regular monitoring at all the locations.
  • Network consists of 683 operating stations covering 300 cities and town in 28 states and 9 union territories of country.
  • Annual average- Annual arithmetic mean of minimum 104 measurements in a year taken twice a week 24 hour at uniform interval.
  • The level of air quality necessary with an adequate margin of safety to protect the public health vegetation and its property.

Air quality index

  • Air quality index is tool for effective dissemination of air quality information to people.
  • There are six categories namely – good, satisfactory, moderately, polluted, poor, very poor and severe.
  • The propose 82 I will consider 8 pollutants PM 10, PM 2.5 NO2, SO2 Co, O3, NH3 and Pb.

Control of air pollution

  • Control measures
    1. Technological
    2. Legal
    3. Economic

Technological approach

  • Adapting Lifestyle that uses less energy and pollutes less or using energy sources that produce less amount of pollutant as by-product.
  • Remove pollutant generating stuff from energy sources
    • example- Remove sulphur from coal before burning it.
  • Reduce the energy used without changing the way of life
    • Use more energy efficient car and replace existing bulb with CFL bulb and LED bulb.
  • Check the generation of pollutant their burned
    • Catalytic converter, electrostatic precipitator, scrubber, Bag house collection of particulate emission, cyclone separator etc.
    • Encouraging mass transportation.

Legal approach

  • After Stockholm conference, 1972 the Government of India under article 253 of the Constitution of India in enacted the Air Act, 1981 for the prevention control and abatement of air pollution.
  • To empower the central and state pollution control board. Air Amendment Act, 1987( for prevention and control of pollution) was enacted but this was not strong enough to play precautionary role.
  • After Bhopal disaster of Environment protection Act was passed in 1986 this act has punitive power to restrict any activity that would harm the environment.
  • To regulate vehicles pollution, the central motor vehicle act of 1939 was amended in 1989.
  • As per the current requirement all the transport vehicles must carry a fitness certificate which is to be renewed each year after the first two year of new vehicle registration.
  • National fuel policy announced on October 6, 2003 , a phased program for implementing the emission standards in India by 2010.

Economic approach

  • Cost consideration of air pollution involves 2 factor:-
    1. Cost of controlling the air pollution
    2. Cost of not controlling the air pollution
  • Determination of cost of first in straight forward but that of second is difficult and can be subjective to some extent.
  • Direct air pollution control in India
    • Fuel wood and Biomass burning
    • Transport

Control

  • Using low sulphur coal.
  • Use Proper air pollution control devices in industry
  • Individual efforts to control air pollution
    • Inform to Road Transport office and PCB about the vehicle polluting the environment
    • Regular engine tune up replacement of old more polluting vehicles
    • Shifting to less polluting fuels
    • Using mass transportation
    • Do not use CFC containing sprays for freshners that deplete the ozone layer.
    • Planting more trees
    • Say no to fire crackers in Diwali and other occasions.