Psychological Disorders Part 6

Introduction

In Psychological Disorders Part 5, Sleep Disorders were discussed. It is extremely important to consult a psychologist if you think you have any sleep disorders. This article will discuss Disruptive Disorders. These are all chronic disorders.

Disruptive Disorders

These are also known as impulse-control disorders, these are the disorders when a person is unable to resist a destructive urge. That is, an inability to control emotions and behaviours which end up in harm to self or others.

Kleptomania

Kleptomania is the inability to resist the urge to steal items that are generally not needed and have very little value. It is a rare yet very serious disorder as it holds the potential of causing emotional pain to the person and their loved ones. Symptoms for this are the inability to resist the urge to steal things of no need, feeling increased anxiety which leads to theft, feeling gratification while stealing, feeling shame after the theft, and the recurrence of the urge to steal. People with this disorder don’t steal for their gain, but because of the urge. The cause of this can be low levels of serotonin, addictive disorder because of the release of dopamine while stealing, and an imbalance in the brain’s opioid system which regulates the urges.

Pyromania

Pyromania is an impulse control disorder in which a person is unable to resist starting fires. People with this disorder know that it is harmful but it tends to be the only way they can get rid of the anxiety they get from the urge. Symptoms for this are setting a fire on purpose more than once, feeling tense before starting a fire, being obsessed with fire, and feeling gratification when setting a fire. This is an extremely rare disorder.

Intermittent Explosive Disorder involves repeated and sudden episodes of aggressive and violent behaviour, it can also include impulsive angry verbal outbursts. These outbursts are very out of proportion with the situation. These can cause a lot of distress and negatively impact the relationships of the person suffering. Some of the symptoms before an aggressive episode are rage, irritability, increased energy, tingling, palpitations, chest tightness, racing thoughts, and tremors. Some symptoms in case of explosive verbal and behavioural outbursts are heated arguments, property damage, assaulting people or animals, temper tantrums, shouting, slapping, physical fights, and tirades. This disorder can begin in childhood after the age of 6 years. Its possible causes are said to be the firstly, environment; if a child is exposed to such behaviour at their house, they are likely to have the same, secondly, genetics, it can be passed down from parents and lastly, it may be caused because of a difference in the structure and chemistry of the brain.

Conduct Disorder

Conduct Disorder is a serious emotional and behavioural disorder that can occur in children and teenagers. A child with this disorder may show a pattern of violent behaviour with problems in following rules. Symptoms of this are aggressive behaviour like fighting and bullying, destructive behaviour like the destruction of property and vandalism, deceitful behaviour like lying and shoplifting, and violation of rules like running away and skipping school. Children with this disorder have low self-esteem, temper tantrums, and often abuse drugs and alcohol. It is important to note that teenagers usually have behaviour related problems but this disorder only exists if the behaviour is long-lasting.

ODD

Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD) is a disorder in which a child or teenager has a pattern of anger, arguing, irritability, and defiance towards authority figures. Symptoms for an angry and irritable mood are easily losing temper, being easily annoyed by others, and is often angry and resentful. Symptoms for argumentative and defiant behaviour are often arguing with the person in authority, actively defying the adults, deliberately annoying people, and blaming others for their mistakes. Symptoms for vindictiveness are being spiteful and showing spiteful behaviour at least twice in six months. Its causes are genetic and environmental, the type of supervision from the parents.

Conclusion

These are the impulse-control disorders that disrupt the daily life of the person with the disorder as well as their loved ones. Although these disorders are chronic and there aren’t any permanent solutions to them, they can be controlled and monitored with the help of some medications and therapy. If you have any of the above-mentioned disorders are ashamed to come forward and seek therapy, please understand that it is not your fault and it is okay to seek help to protect yourself and your loved ones.

References

Note: this is just Part 6 of the Psychological Disorders series.