Organ transplantation (OT) is one of the most successful advances in modern medicine. For patients with end-stage disease, transplantation most often provides their only chance for survival. Even before the first transplant was performed, it was clear that OT could only be successful with a multidisciplinary approach. The history of OT has involved a series of breakthroughs in medicine that has influenced all aspects of health care. As you will see, for nearly a century, the contributions of specialists in anesthesiology and critical were largely underrepresented in the world’s literature.
What is Organ Donation?
Organ donation and transplantation is removing an organ from one person (the donor) and surgically placing it in another (the recipient) whose organ has failed. Organ transplantation is a medical procedure in which an organ is removed from one body and placed in the body of a recipient, to replace a damaged or missing organ. The donor and recipient may be at the same location, or organs may be transported from a donor site to another location. Organs must be removed as soon as possible after the determination of brain death, while circulation is being maintained artificially. Tissues may be removed within 12 to 24 hours.
The benefits of an organ transplant depend on the organ a person receives. Some benefits may include
o Avoiding medical procedures such as dialysis
o Living a longer life
o Living a healthier or less painful life
o Gaining an improved quality of life, such as when a cornea
transplant restores a person’s sight
o Correcting congenital disabilities that endanger a
o Spending less time in the hospital, needing fewer
surgeries, or taking fewer medications.
The shortage of organs is a major problem worldwide. There are many more patients awaiting transplantation than there are organ donors. Low socioeconomic status is a big hurdle for organ transplantation. Superstitions such as being born with a missing organ (that has been donated); and that tampering with the body will not free their dead relatives from the cycle of life–death–rebirth are some of the prevalent superstitions. The lack of an adequate number of transplant centers with staff as well as transplant coordinators who are adequately educated and well versed with the procedures required to conduct an organ donation program is acting as a significant roadblock to the deceased organ donation program. Sometimes, organs are transported from the donor hospital to the transplant center where the recipient is located. There have been many instances where valuable organs have been wasted due to delays in the transportation process.
Organs that can be Transplanted
Organs and tissues that can be transplanted include:
- Middle ear.
- Bone marrow.
- Heart valves.
- Connective tissue.
Solid-organ transplantations save lives in patients affected by terminal organ failures and improve quality of life. Solid-organ transplant programs provide excellent results in children and young adults and are increasingly challenged by the expanding proportion of elderly transplant patients. Solid-organ transplant program activity has been growing in the last two decades and is essential for developed and mature health care systems.