PREFABRICATION

What is prefabrication?

Prefabrication is the process of fabricating components of a structure in a factory or other manufacturing facility and shipping entire assemblies or sub-assemblies to the location where the structure will be installed. The term prefabrication also refers to the production of things other than construction in a fixed location. and the section is delivered assembled and ready for assembly. It generally does not refer to electrical or electronic components of a machine or mechanical parts such as pumps, gears, and compressors, which are usually supplied as separate items, but rather refers to the machine body that was used for parts in the past. . Mac premade parts This body can be called “sub-assemblies” and can be separated from other components.

Since when it is used

Prefabrication has been used since ancient times; For example, it is said to be the oldest dam in the world, Sweet Track, dating from around 3800 BC. Ancient Sri Lanka, particularly the Kingdom of Anuradhapura and the Kingdom of Polonnaruwa, used ready-made technology to erect huge structures, which are 2000 years old and some sections have been prepared separately and then assembled. In 1755 the Portuguese capital, especially the Baixa district, is popularly known as the Marqués de Pombal, the most powerful royal minister of D. The leadership of Sebastião José Von Carvalho e Melo, the most powerful royal minister of D. José IA, arose from Pombal a new architectural and urban planning style that introduced early anti-seismic design features and innovative prefabricated buildings. The buildings were manufactured entirely outside of the city, transported in pieces, and then assembled on-site, a process that lasted into the 19th century and provided city dwellers with unprecedented levels of safety before the earthquake. In the 19th century, Australia was importing large numbers of prefabricated houses from the United Kingdom. The method was widely used in prefabricated houses in the 20th century, for example in the UK as temporary living space. Space for thousands of townspeople. Families were “bombed out” during World War II. The assembly of profiles in factories saved time on site and the lightness of the panels reduced the cost of foundation and assembly on site. Gray concrete with flat roofs, prefabricated houses were uninsulated and cold, and prefabricated houses took on some stigma, but some London prefabricated houses have been occupied for much longer than the expected 10 years. The Crystal Palace, built in London in 1851, was a widely visible example of prefabricated iron and glass. Structures; Oxford Rewley Road station followed on a smaller scale.

Current uses

The most widespread form of prefabricated parts in civil engineering is the use of precast concrete parts and prefabricated steel parts in structures in which a certain part of a certain shape is repeated many times. It can be difficult to make the formwork required for pouring concrete structures on site. and delivering wet concrete to the site before it sets requires careful time management. Pouring concrete profiles in a factory brings the benefits of reusing molds and concrete can be mixed on-site without having to be transported and pumped wet into a crowded construction site. The parts reduce the cost of cutting and welding on-site, as well as the associated costs. The quality of the residential units produced had risen to such an extent that their residents could not distinguish them from traditionally built units. The technology is also used in office buildings, warehouses, and factories. Prefabricated parts made of glass and steel are widespread. Use for the exterior of large buildings: single-family houses, cottages, log houses, saunas, etc. They are also sold with prefabricated elements. Thanks to the modular prefabrication of wall panels, complex thermal insulation, window frame components, etc. can be produced on the assembly line, which tends to improve the construction quality of every wall or frame on-site prefer manual construction and the image of the prefabricated house as a “cheap” method only slows its acceptance. However, today’s practice already allows the system to be modified depending on the customer’s requirements and the choice of coating material. All clinker facades can be bricked, even if the load-bearing elements are made of wood Civil engineering work This can be decisive for the success of projects such as bridges and avalanche galleries, where the weather conditions only allow a short construction period. The systems and prefabricated bridge components offer bridge planners and construction workers considerable advantages over the construction time. e, safety, environmental sustainability, feasibility, and cost. Prefabrication can also help minimize the impact of bridge building on traffic. Small and frequently used structures such as concrete towers are also prefabricated in most cases. Radio towers for cell phones and other services often consist of several prefabricated parts. The masts are also often assembled from prefabricated parts. Prefabrication is widespread in the assembly of aircraft and spacecraft, and components such as wings and fuselage sections are often manufactured at the final assembly site in different countries or state Airbus.

Advantages

Moving sub-components out of the factory is generally cheaper than moving pre-production resources to each location.

Placing resources on the site increases costs; precast concrete components reduce costs by reducing the workload on the construction site.

The precision tools of the factory can help control the flow of heat and air in the building, reduce energy consumption and improve the health of the building.

The machine movement of the parts and the absence of wind and rain can improve the safety of the structure.

Uniform indoor factory environments eliminate most of the climate impacts on production

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