The Building Technology Behind Skyscrapers

When planning and constructing high-rise buildings, the aim is to create safe and livable rooms in very tall buildings; the buildings have to bear their weight, withstand wind and earthquakes, protect residents from fire, but also have to be easily accessible on the upper floors. Utilities and a comfortable climate for residents Most high-rise buildings have a steel frame that allows them to be built higher than typical reinforced concrete structural walls. Buildings are characterized by window areas created by the concept of a steel frame and a curtain wall; However, skyscrapers can also have curtain walls that mimic conventional walls and have a small window area. This is made possible by cheap energy from fossil fuels and industrially refined raw materials such as steel and concrete.

The construction of the skyscraper was made possible by the construction of steel structures, which increased the brick and mortar construction of the late 19th work. The usable area for ever-larger supporting pillars is reduced. Tubular skyscraper structures have been used since 1960, reducing the use of materials (cheaper: Willis Tower uses a third less steel than the Empire State Building), but allows for greater height; allows fewer interior columns and thus creates more usable space . The elevators are characteristic of skyscrapers, a safety elevator with which passengers can be transported comfortably and safely to the upper floors option was to use a steel frame instead of stone or brick; Otherwise, the walls of the lower floors of a tall building would be too thick to be practical.

Today’s leading elevator manufacturers are Otis, ThyssenKrupp, Schindler, and KONE. Advances in construction technology have caused skyscrapers to shrink in width and increase in height. Some of these new techniques include mass dampers to reduce vibration and oscillation and gaps to allow air to pass through, which reduces wind shear.

Basic design considerations

Good structural design is important for most construction projects, but especially important for high-rise buildings because, given the high price tag, the likelihood of catastrophic failure is small but unacceptable. For civil engineers, this is a paradox: the only way to ensure reliability is to test all failure modes in the laboratory and the real world, but the only way to understand all failure modes is to identify previously known failures. Thus, no engineer can be sure that a given structure will withstand all the stresses that could lead to failure, but they can only have a sufficiently large margin of safety to make failure acceptable due to some form of myopia or some unknown factor.

Loading and vibration

The stress in a skyscraper is in large part due to the strength of the building material itself. In most building designs, the weight of the structure is much greater than the weight of the material it supports beyond its weight., The load on the structure is much greater than the payload . The amount of building material in the lower levels of a skyscraper must  be larger than the Empire State Building. Thus the shape results exclusively from the load-bearing capacity. Posts can come in a variety of designs, the most common of which is for skyscrapers. can be divided into steel frames, concrete cores, pipe-in-pipe construction, and wall shear walls. 

Steel frame

By 1895, steel had replaced cast iron as a construction material for skyscrapers. Its malleability enabled a variety of shapes and rivets, which ensured firm connections. The simplicity of a steel frame eliminated the inefficient portion of a shear wall, the center portion, and load-bearing elements, which were consolidated in a much stronger way by allowing horizontal and vertical supports throughout. the distance between the support elements decreases, which in turn increases the amount of material to be supported. In buildings over 40 floors, this becomes inefficient and uneconomical because the usable area for the support column is reduced and the increased use of steel. 

The elevator conundrum

The invention of the elevator is a prerequisite for the invention of high-rise buildings because most people can (or can) only climb a few stairs at a time. Elevators in high-rise buildings are not only necessary aids such as running water and electricity but are also closely related to the design of the entire building . Taller buildings need more elevators to reach more floors, but elevator shafts consume valuable living space. 

Many high-rise buildings use non-standard elevators to reduce space requirements. Buildings like the former World Trade Center Tower and the John Hancock Center in Chicago use elevated lobbies where express elevators take passengers to higher floors and serve as a base for local elevators. Architects and engineers can stack elevator shafts on top of each other to save space; However, celestial corridors and high-speed elevators take up a lot of space and add to the time it takes to move between floors. Double-deck elevators, so that more people can take an elevator to two floors at each station. More than two floors can be used in an elevator, although this has never been the case. The main problem with double-deck elevators is that if only one person needs to reach a particular floor, then everyone in the elevator will be forced to stop. d Mall, Petronas Twin Towers, Willis Tower, Taipei 101 The Paradise lobby on the 44th floor of the John Hancock Center is also home to the first multi-level indoor pool, which is still the tallest in the United States.

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