Bioremediation is a process of clean up of waste from environment, basically it is a type of waste management technique which involves the use of organisms to remove or utilize the pollutants from a polluted area. Microorganisms like Bacteria and Fungi are the main role player when it comes to executing the process of Bioremediation. Bacteria are the most crucial microbes in this process as they break down the waste into nutrients and organic matter. Even though this is an efficient process of waste management but bioremediation cannot destroy 100% contaminants. Bacteria can easily digest contaminants like chlorinated pesticides or clean oil spills but microorganisms fail to destroy heavy metals like lead and cadmium. It’s great isn’t it.
Here arises a question why is it so important ?
It is important mainly because of two factors
1. It uses no harsh chemicals.
2. It can allow waste to be recycled.
Basically there are two main classes of bioremediation that are in-situ and ex-situ.
In-situ – In situ refers to when contaminated waste is treated right at its point of origin. For example, there may be soil that is contaminated. Rather than remove the soil from its point of origin, it is treated right where it is.
Ex-situ – Ex situ refers to treatment that occurs after the contaminated waste has been removed to a treatment area. To use soil as the example again, the soil may be removed and transported to an area where the bioremediation may be applied.
Bioremediation can be carried out by bacteria that is naturally present in the environment or adding nutrients, this process is called biostimulation.