CONCEPT OF CULTIVATION IN INDIA

AGRICULTURE has been the backbone of Human existence since time immemorial.The Agricultural practices carried out in india are still largely traditional.In the years of its independence,india has made immense progress toward food security.India’s Green revolution Technology invloves production of crop and its irrigation.Agriculture employed more than 50% of the indian work force and has contributed 17-18%to country’s GDP.This is the most vital Sector for human survival.The economic contribution of Agriculture to india’s GDP is Steadily declining with country’s broad based economic growth.But still,it plays a significant role in the overall socio-economic fabric of india.Farmer refers to the person who engages in the activity of Growing crops and Various farming related occupations such as Sericulture,Verimiculture and Agro-forestry,it invloves fishers,livestock rearers, poultry,gardeners,Planting labourers etc.

INDIAN AGRICULTURE AND ITS IMPORTANCE:

Before the mid-1960s,India relied on imports and food aid to meet domestic requirements.However,two years of severe drought in 1965 and 1966 made india to to reform its agricultural policy.This formed india’s Green revolution with better farming knowledge to improve productivity.The State of Punjab led india’s green Revolution and is known to be the Country’s BreadBasket.With agricultural policy success in wheat,india’s green revolution spread to rice,farmers innvoated tube-wells,to harvest ground water.Agricultural Scientist MS SWAMINATHAN has played a vital role in the Green revoulution in 2013.

Organic farming considered to be the Traditional practice of harvesting with ancestral practices and cultivating procedures.The primary aim of this Organic farming is to help soil to get healthy through biological wastes ,organic wastes and bio-Fertilizers.Organic farming is a sytem that avoids use of synthetic inputs like pesticides,Fertilizers and chemicals, that relys on the techniques like Crop rotation ,Organic Waste ,Farm Manure and crop residues for Plants Protection and nutrients required for its Utilization.The need for this farming is a natural balance between life and property of existence.

Organic farming is based on the Following principles:

  • Soil is a living entity and gives good fertility for plant growth
  • Nature provides all the neccesities and don’t use any external agents
  • The health of soil and its structure is maintained as it is believed to be the most important medium

since india has Traditionally been practicing organic Farming and there is regulatory body that ensures the quality.National Programe on organic production (NPOP) regulates domestic and export markets.As the entire theme of organic farming revolves around healthy,living soil crop residue management.It ensures optimum productivity without fertility loss.Some strategies to consider for Organic farming are :

RAIN WATER HARVESTING:

Rain water harvesting is an important step in organic farming that is the only source of irrigation are seasonal rains,local ponds,percolation tanks,lakes and wells.Farm ponds must be dug and cultivation is practiced.

SOIL ENRICHMENT:

Soil must be enriched to the maximum extent.The golden rule here is to circulate the crop residue,cattle Droppings,and other biological waste back to the field to attain and enrich fertility of the soil.Bio-nutrients,Bio-fertilizers,compost pits must be used.

TEMPERATURE MANAGEMENT:

Inspite of the increasing temparature and ill-effects of global warming this is a important consideration.The soil must be kept and covered to protect it from heat. Trees and bushes has to be planted on the banks.

MODERN CULTIVATION AND ITS ADVANTAGES:

Modern Agricultural systems , Modern machines can control the hard work of farmers.Modern farming was very successful in meeting a growing demand for food by the world’s population.Yields of primary crops such as rice and wheat increased dramatically with the general population growth.This boost in food production has been mainly to scientific advances and new crop varities with the use of pesticides and fertilizers and the construction of large irrigation systems.

The main Motto of Modern agricultural systems have been developed to obtain the highest yields and to get economic profit.It also has a concept of Monoculture,where only one crop is grown alone in a field .Monoculture makes it easier to sow seed,control weeds and harvest.Irrigation technolgies include supply of water to crops during times of dry weather in the place where natural rainfall is not sufficient for growing most of the crops.Modern culture has taken advantage of several more recent crop breeding techniques.

MODERN FARMING METHODS:

AEROPONICS SYSTEM:

This process of growing plants in air or mist environment without the utilize of soil as medium.It is a subset of Hydroponics and grows by suspending plant roots in the air and misting them with nutrient water.This uses liquid nutrient result as a growing medium and essential mineral to maintain plant growth.These are cost effective since won’t have to spend money on irrigation channels.

AQUAPONICS SYSTEMS:

Aquaponics is a closed loops system that relies on the acquaculture and agriculture for fertilization.While fish waste accumulates in the water and provides the nutrients essential for plant growth,the plants naturally clean the water.It benefits by using all the normal fertilizer sources from fish waste.Efficient,Sustainable and extremely productive.These are some important modern farming methods that have been in practice in recent times all over the world.Cultivation has its Importance within a sustainable and healthy environment.

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