Swami Vivekananda’s inspiring personality was well known both in India and in America during the last decade of the nineteenth century and the first decade of the twentieth.
Born as Narendranath Datta in a Bengali Kayastha family, he is the chief driving force behind various religious reform movements during the times of Colonial India. He introduced Hinduism to the world in a famous speech that he spoke in Chicago in 1893.
He was born on January 12, 1863 and His father was Vishwanath Datta, an attorney at the Calcutta high court while his mother, Bhubaneswari Devi was a housewife. From a very young age, Vivekananda was interested in spirituality and would meditate in front of the images of Hindu Gods and Goddesses.
He was a devout follower of an Indian saint named Sri Ramakrishna Paramhansa. Not only that, he was a devout follower of Sri Ramakrishna Paramhansa, whose ideologies he followed till the day he breathed his last. Inspired him, he even formed the Ramakrishna Math and the Ramakrishna Mission. He went to the United States of America to teach modern Hindu philosophy.
His vast knowledge of Eastern and Western culture as well as his deep spiritual insight, fervid eloquence, brilliant conversation, broad human sympathy, colourful personality, and handsome figure made an irresistible appeal to the many types of Americans who came in contact with him. People who saw or heard Vivekananda even once still cherish his memory after a lapse of more than half a century.
The Swami’s mission was both national and international. A lover of mankind, he strove to promote peace and human brotherhood on the spiritual foundation of the Vedantic Oneness of existence. A mystic of the highest order, Vivekananda had a direct and intuitive experience of Reality. He derived his ideas from that unfailing source of wisdom and often presented them in the soulstirring language of poetry.
To the Hindus he preached the ideal of a strength-giving and man-making religion. Service to man as the visible manifestation of the Godhead was the special form of worship he advocated for the Indians, devoted as they were to the rituals and myths of their ancient faith. Many political leaders of India have publicly acknowledged their indebtedness to Swami Vivekananda.
In America Vivekananda’s mission was the interpretation of India’s spiritual culture, especially in its Vedantic setting. He also tried to enrich the religious consciousness of the Americans through the rational and humanistic teachings of the Vedanta philosophy. In America he became India’s spiritual ambassador and pleaded eloquently for better understanding between India and the New World in order to create a healthy synthesis of East and West, of religion and science.
The natural tendency of Vivekananda’s mind, like that of his Master, Ramakrishna, was to soar above the world and forget itself in contemplation of the Absolute. But another part of his personality bled at the sight of human suffering in East and West alike. It might appear that his mind seldom found a point of rest in its oscillation between contemplation of God and service to man. Be that as it may, he chose, in obedience to a higher call, service to man as his mission on earth; and this choice has endeared him to people in the West, Americans in particular.
In the course of a short life of thirty-nine years (1863-1902), of which only ten were devoted to public activities-and those, too, in the midst of acute physical suffering-he left for posterity his four classics: Jnana-Yoga, Bhakti-Yoga, Karma-Yoga, and Raja-Yoga, all of which are outstanding treatises on Hindu philosophy. In addition, he delivered innumerable lectures, wrote inspired letters in his own hand to his many friends and disciples, composed numerous poems, and acted as spiritual guide to the many seekers, who came to him for instruction. He also organized the Ramakrishna Order of monks, which is the most outstanding religious organization of modern India. It is devoted to the propagation of the Hindu spiritual culture not only in the Swami’s native land, but also in America and in other parts of the world.
Swami Vivekananda passed away on July 4 in the year 1902. He was just 39 years old. Even almost 120 years after his demise, he is still alive in many people’s hearts and minds as they fondly remember his ideologies and what he taught.
National Youth Day is celebrated on January 12, every year in India to honor the birth anniversary of Swami Vivekananda.