Dr. Ambedkar’s philosophy of caste in India

In India Caste System consists of two different concepts that are Varna and
Jati, the real concept of Varna has almost disappeared in the present
context and has changed into Jati. Caste is such a deep-rooted and pervasive
concept, it is a rigid form of stratification system, in which mobility of rank
and status is not allowed. The members of backward classes are not a part
of Hindu society even then, they had started observing untouchability
towards Dalits- who themselves have a caste hierarchy.
During his lifetime Dr. Ambedkar had played three roles: caste leader,
untouchable spokesman, and that of a national statesman. He was a guide,
guru, and decision-maker for his caste, the Mahars of Maharashtra.

According to him, no civilized society other than Indian one practices rituals
of the remote past even today. Its religion is essentially primitive, and its
tribal code, despite the advancement of time and civilization, operates with
all its pristine vigor even today. The prevalence of exogamy was well-known
in the primitive world. The caste system has made Hindu society stagnant
which creates hurdles in integration with outsiders. Even internally, Hindu
society fails to satisfy the test of a homogeneous society, as it is just a
conglomeration of different castes. The caste system does not allow lower
castes to prosper which led to moral degradation. The battle for the removal
of untouchability becomes the battle for human rights and justice.
Dr. Ambedkar criticized old Law books like Manusmriti and Arthshastras
who showed the inferiority and bitterness towards the suppressed class. He
also criticized the higher standard of Brahmans who are category above of
all. The Brahmans are somehow responsible for social exploitation and the
backwardness of untouchables.