If you believe that if I say Tamil people developed Nanotechnology 2600 years ago. Yes, it is true. Researches say that the pots which the tamil people used then, was coated using Nanotechnology. This blog is going to be about the carbon nanostructures that were found in Keezhadi. Scientists found the 2600 years old earthenwares in Keezhadi coated with carbon nanotubes. Carbon nanotubes have high thermal and electrical conductivity and very high mechanical strength and also very light in weight.
Many may have heard about Keezhadi, the archeological site which portrays the rich civilization of Tamil people in the sixth century BC. Many steps of excavation was made in Keezhadi. Huge remains of pottery were found. When scientists experimented on the pot remains, they found a unique black coating over it. They also discovered that Carbon Nanotubes were in the black coating. These were the oldest known nanostructures on the Earth right now.
In the modern era, Carbon Nanotubes was developed in 1991 which is called CNT. From 1991 to 2006, in America, more than 4500 applications for getting patent rights for Nanotubes have been submitted. This data is from a Scientific paper.
A graphite consists of layers of Graphene laid one over the other. If a single layer Graphene is taken and folded cylindrically/ round, then it is called Carbon Nanotubes. These Carbon Nanotubes and Graphene comes under SP2 bond type. Diamond cones under SP3 bond type. So Carbon Nanotubes and Graphene are tougher than diamonds. So Carbon Nanotubes and Graphene are called as “Wonder Material” by the scientists. Nanotube is used in the Bullet proof vests.
How many types does the Carbon Nanotubes consist of?
Carbon Nanotube has three typpes – Armchair CNT, Zigzag CNT and Choral CNT. The direction in which they are shaped will determine the type. After they have completed a Nanotube it is called Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes (SWCNT). If there are layers of these, then it is called Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotube (MWCNT).
Can these SWCNT or MWCNT created naturally?
There are scientific papers released in 2008 and 2017. In any of those, there is no proof that they occured naturally. So according to science, the possibility for Nanotubes to occur naturally is very low. So one should have helped the process in the ancient era. An external force in specific level is required for its formation. A paper in 2008 says that from 2020 to 2025, the carbon nanotubes would be a billion dollars business. Such a precious material is found in Keezhadi now. But no one is ready to talk about it. But we should know about our history.
Gravity is science. But it existed for billions of years. When a person named it as “Gravity” it was changed into a Scientific term but still it is a Natural Occurance. That is the Reality. The Tamils in Ancient times were dependent on nature. Their way of using Nature to their will was unique. They thought about how to use it to improve their lifestyle. The Tamils were one step ahead of research. So the Tamils in the ancient times knew that Carbon Nanotubes and Graphene were the toughest materials which were very high electrical and heat conductors. Take only the toughness property. So Tamil people who lived 2600 years ago, needed the toughest material available on Earth. Tamils had metals. But they had clay in large quantities. The Tamils wanted to toughen up the clay. So they built aypots but it broke soon. So they discovered that to toughen up the claypots, they should heat them. These heated pots were not so tough. Now they wanted a coating to be done upon the pots. So through trial and error method they did a coating in the claypots. They would have spent many years to complete the research. After many trials with many materials which resulted in failures, the Tamils would have developed the carbon nanotubes.
How many degrees Celsius was required?
Nearly 1100° to 1400° Celsius. In these extreme conditions only, they could have created the Carbon Nanotubes. The Scientists of today say that the materials used for coating may be Carbon rich materials. So when we say Carbon rich materials, it could be Vegetable oil or any other material. When it is combined with the claypots under extreme heat, the carbon nanotubes may be created. The claypots would consist of Iron content. So iron and carbon together may produced Carbon Nanotubes, a material which is 200 times tougher than steel. So through this method, the ancient Tamils would have created Carbon Coated claypots which lasted for many years. Due to the toughness of carbon nanotube, the claypots has been discovered as Archaeological remains in Keezhadi.