Coffee is a daily ritual in the lives of millions of humans around the globe. coffee is the most valuable legally traded commodity in the world. We love it, we rely on it, and we drink it in massive quantities. It is estimated that 2.25 billion cups of coffee are consumed each day worldwide. New Yorkers are said to drink 7 times the amount of any other U.S. city, which is why it may seem like there is a Starbucks on every corner of Manhattan. Famed French writer and philosopher Voltaire was rumored to have drunk 40 – 50 cups per day.
As with most foods that have been around for centuries, coffee’s beginnings are enveloped in mystery and lore. There is a popular Ethiopian legend wherein coffee is discovered by a goat herder named Kaldi, who found his goats frolicking and full of energy after eating the red fruit of the coffee shrub. Kaldi tried the fruit for himself and had a similar reaction. After witnessing their strange behavior, a monk took some of the fruit back to his fellow monks; they too spent the night awake and alert. Of course, they would have been reacting to coffee’s high dose of caffeine. This natural stimulant also serves as an inborn plant pesticide, protecting the coffee fruit from insects.
Before coffee became our morning beverage of choice, it appeared in a variety of different preparations. In its most basic, unprocessed form, coffee is a cherry-like fruit, which becomes red when ripe; the coffee bean is found at the center of the red coffee fruit. Early on, the fruit were mixed with animal fat to create a protein rich snack bar. At one point, the fermented pulp was used to make a wine-like concoction; incidentally, a similar beverage was made from the cacao fruit, before the advent of chocolate, which goes to show that humans are especially adept at finding new ways to imbibe. Another drink that appeared around 1000 A.D. was made from the whole coffee fruit, including the beans and the hull. It wasn’t until the 13th century that people began to roast coffee beans, the first step in the process of making coffee as we know it today.
HISTORY OF COFFEE:
Wild coffee plants, probably from Kefa (Kaffa), Ethiopia, were taken to southern Arabia and placed under cultivation in the 15th century. One of many legends about the discovery of coffee is that of Kaldi, an Arab goatherd who was puzzled by the strange antics of his flock. About 850 CE Kaldi supposedly sampled the berries of the evergreen bush on which the goats were feeding and, on experiencing a sense of exhilaration, proclaimed his discovery to the world.
The modern version of roasted coffee originated in Arabia. During the 13th century, coffee was extremely popular with the Muslim community for its stimulant powers, which proved useful during long prayer sessions. By parching and boiling the coffee beans, rendering them infertile, the Arabs were able to corner the market on coffee crops. In fact, tradition says that not a single coffee plant existed outside of Arabia or Africa until the 1600s, when Baba Budan, an Indian pilgrim, left Mecca with fertile beans fastened to a strap across his abdomen. Baba’s beans resulted in a new and competitive European coffee trade.
Coffee was introduced into one European country after another throughout the 16th and 17th centuries. Many accounts are recorded of its prohibition or approval as a religious, political, and medical potion. By the end of the 17th century, coffeehouses were flourishing across Britain, the British colonies in America, and continental Europe.
By the 20th century the greatest concentration of production was centred in the Western Hemisphere—particularly brazil. In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, industrial roasting and grinding machines came into use; vacuum-sealed containers were invented for ground roasts; and decaffeination methods for green coffee beans were developed. After 1950 the production of instant coffee was perfected. The popularity of instant coffee led to increased production of the cheaper Robusta beans in Africa.
In 1616, the Dutch founded the first European-owned coffee estate in Sri Lanka, then Ceylon, then Java in 1696. The French began growing coffee in the Caribbean, followed by the Spanish in Central America and the Portuguese in Brazil. European coffee houses sprang up in Italy and later France, where they reached a new level of popularity. Now, it is de rigueur for Parisians to indulge in a cup of coffee and a baguette or croissant at the numerous coffee cafes throughout Paris.
By the late 1800s, coffee had become a worldwide commodity, and entrepreneurs began looking for new ways to profit from the popular beverage. In 1864, John and Charles Arbuckle, brothers from Pittsburgh, purchased Jabez Burns’ newly invented self-emptying coffee bean roaster. The Arbuckle brothers began selling pre-roasted coffee in paper bags by the pound. They named their coffee “Ariosa,” and found great success selling it to the cowboys of the American West. It wasn’t long before James Folger followed suit and began selling coffee to the gold miners of California. This blazed the trail for several other big name coffee producers, including Maxwell House and Hills Brothers.
PROCESSING OF GREEN COFFEE :
The ripened fruits of the coffee shrub are known as coffee cherries, and each cherry generally contains two coffee seeds (“beans”) positioned flat against one another. About 5 percent of cherries contain only one seed; called peaberries, those single seeds are smaller and denser and produce, in the opinion of some, a sweeter, more-flavourful coffee.The cherries are processed by disengaging the coffee seeds from their coverings and from the pulp and by drying the seeds from an original moisture content of 65–70 percent water by weight to 12–13 percent; all beans must be removed from their fruit and dried before roasting. Three techniques are used for processing the coffee: the dry, or “natural,” process, the wet (and washed) process, and a hybrid process called the semi-washed, or “pulped natural,” method. The coffee resulting from those processes is called green coffee, which is then ready for roasting.
THE DRY PROCESS :
The oldest and simplest method of processing coffee, requiring little machinery, is practiced in dry climates such as those of Brazil and Ethiopia. After the fruits have been sorted (often by hand) and cleaned (via running water or washing canals or in large tanks), they are placed in the sun to dry on concrete, brick patios, or raised mats. The cherries are frequently raked or turned by hand to shift them onto the driest surface and to prevent fermentation and mold. The drying process may take several days or up to four weeks. The drying process is critical: overdried coffee will break, forming defective beans, and coffee too moist can deteriorate quickly if attacked by fungi and bacteria. When the fruits have been dried to a water content of about 12–13 percent, they are mechanically hulled to free the seeds from their coverings. In rainy regions where humidity and rains during harvest time are common, the dry process is obviously not practical.
THE WET PROCESS :
The wet process requires more equipment than the dry method but produces beans that are better preserved and more homogenous and have fewer defects. Most Arabica coffees are produced by the wet method, and they generally command a higher price.In the first step of the wet process, the skin and the pulp of the fresh fruit are removed by a pulping machine, which consists of a rotating drum or disk that presses the fruit against a sharp-edged or slotted plate, disengaging the pulp from the seed. Pulp still clings to the coffee seed, however, as a thin mucilaginous layer. That layer is eliminated by fermentation, actually a form of digestion in which naturally occurring pectic enzymes decompose the pulp while the wetted seeds are held in tanks for one to three days. Washing clears all remaining traces of pulp from the coffee seeds, which are then dried either by exposure to sunlight on concrete terraces or by passing through hot-air driers. The dry skin around the seed, called the parchment, is then mechanically removed, sometimes with polishing.
The “pulped natural” process:
A third method, called pulped natural, is a hybrid of dry and wet processing. Pulps are removed mechanically, but the beans are dried without any intermediate fermentation, and the mucilage is not removed until after drying. Beans thus treated have a good balance of sweet and acidic notes.
GRADING AND STORAGE :
The practice of grading and classifying coffee gives sellers and buyers a guarantee concerning the origin, nature, and quality of the product to aid their negotiations. Each coffee-producing country has a certain number of defined types and grades—based on characteristics such as growing altitude and region, botanical variety, method of processing, roast appearance, and bean size, density, and defects—but there is no universal grading and classification system. Fair Trade coffee, part of the larger Fair Trade movement, arose to ensure that coffee is harvested and processed without child labour and dangerous herbicides and pesticides and that growers and exporters, particularly in the poorer regions of the coffee-growing world, are paid a fair price. In moderate climates the conservation of dry lots does not pose a problem as long as they are stocked in well-ventilated places.
PROCESSING OF THE BEAN :
The process of decaffeination was initially solvent-based (in the early 20th century using benzene but later using methylene chloride or ethyl acetate). In the direct method, the coffee beans are steamed and then rinsed by the chemical agent. In the indirect method, the chemical agent never touches the beans but treats the water-base coffee solution in which the beans are first soaked. Although some high-volume companies still decaffeinate by using solvents (mainly ethyl acetate, as methylene chloride is considered a possible carcinogen), the process is regulated such that the chemicals are removed before the coffee is roasted.
The aromatic and gustatory qualities of coffee are developed by the high temperatures to which they are subjected during roasting or broiling. Temperatures are raised progressively from about 180–250 °C (356–482 °F) and heated for anywhere from 7 to 20 minutes, depending on the type of light or dark roast desired. Roasting releases steam, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, and other volatiles from the beans, resulting in a loss of weight between 14 and 23 percent. Internal pressure of gas expands the coffee beans by 30 to 100 percent. The beans become a deep, rich brown, and their texture becomes porous and crumbly under pressure. The most-important effect of roasting is the appearance of the characteristic aroma of coffee, which arises from very complex chemical transformations within the bean. Roasting too long can destroy volatile flavour and aroma compounds. For that reason, Robusta beans are often deliberately overroasted to rid the coffee of its natural harshness.
Regardless of the method used, the coffee, after leaving industrial roasters, is rapidly cooled in a vat, where it is stirred and subjected to cold air propelled by a blower. Good-quality coffees are then sorted by electronic sorters to eliminate those seeds, either too light or too dark, that roasted badly and whose presence downgrades the overall quality.
Some coffees are left as whole beans to be ground at the time of purchase or by the consumer at home. Much coffee, however, is ground, or milled, by the manufacturer immediately after roasting. In most modern roasting plants, grinding is accomplished by feeding the coffee through a series of serrated or scored rollers, set at progressively smaller gaps, that first crack the beans and then cut them to the desired particle size.The degree of fineness is important. If a coffee is too coarse, water filters through too fast to pick up flavour; if it is too fine, water filters through too slowly and retains particles that deposit at the bottom of the cup.
Effective packaging prevents air and moisture from reaching the coffee. Ground coffee alters rapidly and loses its aromatic qualities within a few days if it is not put into hermetically sealed containers immediately.The air, especially in humid atmospheres, causes rancidity through the oxidation of fatty components. Modern packaging materials, plastic films such as polyethylene and complexes of aluminium and cellulose, are capable of conserving the quality of coffee for a time. The most-satisfactory solution to the problem, however, is packing under vacuum or in an inertgas, in rigorously impervious containers.At the turn of the 21st century, manufacturers responded to consumer desire for freshness and easy-to-brew systems by producing single-cup coffeemakers using coffee capsules—small disposable containers filled with a premeasured amount of coffee and sealed airtight to maintain freshness.
Brewing and Drinking:
There are both hot and cold methods of extracting flavour and aroma from ground coffee, and the caffeine content varies with the variety of bean and method of brewing. In steeping or boiling, pulverized coffee is measured into hot water, which is set or boiled before being poured off the grounds. In percolation, water is brought to a boil in an urn and fed up a tube to a basket holding the coffee. After filtering through the coffee, the water drips back to the urn, where it is forced back up the tube and recirculated until the brew has reached the desired strength. In the filter, or drip, method, hot water is slowly filtered through the coffee and dripped into a receptacle; it is not recirculated.
Finally, high temperature is not needed to brew coffee—as long as one is willing to wait about 12 hours. In cold-water extraction, dampened grounds are left to sit and steep. When strained after some 12 hours, the resulting brew is a robust but smooth taste without the bitter acids and oils that traditionally accompany hot-water extraction methods. The cold concentrate keeps well for up to two weeks when refrigerated, and it is ideal as a cooking ingredient, as when making coffee ice cream.
INSTANT COFFEE METHOD:
In the manufacture of instant coffee (called soluble coffee in the industry), a liquid concentration of coffee prepared with hot water is dehydrated. This can be done by spray drying or by freeze drying (a dehydration process known as lyophilization). The operations are complex, and methods vary among manufacturers. The resulting soluble powder, on the addition of hot water, forms reconstituted coffee. The average yield is 25 to 30 percent by weight of the ground coffee, thereby lowering shipping costs. Instant coffee is obviously quicker to make than brewed coffee, and it enjoys a longer shelf life than coffee beans, but it picks up moisture readily and must be kept dry. The taste of instant coffee is also widely considered inferior to brewed coffee.
COFFEE SHOP FRANCHISE BUSINESS :
A Coffee shop is not just a place to have a cup of coffee. It is a place where you can meet friends, family, co-workers or maybe even close a business deal. India, as an emerging nation, is growing at a fast pace to become one of the top coffee markets in the world. Coffee shops capture the imagination of sipping customers by providing a relaxed ambience that caters to youngsters, working professionals or just about anybody.
Cafe Coffee Day:
A part of India’s biggest coffee concoction, is the favorite coffee shop among all Indians. This largest retail cafe chain is ideal for the young and the old to unwind.
Indian Coffee House:
The oldest coffee franchise run by a set of working cooperative society members has a strong hold in this sector with almost 400 chains all over India. This cafe is owned and managed by the employees itself.
Barista Cafe and Restaurant:
Barista is a leading developer of Indian cafe culture. They have authentic flavors of coffee with cafes spread over many cities in India. This cafe is ideal for people to catch up and relax over a cup of coffee in their comfortable and friendly surrounding. This place also offers a wide range of snacks to go along with coffee.
Costa Coffee :
Costa coffee was first introduced by the Costa brothers Sergio and Bruno who worked to give special Mocha Italian blend of coffee to its customers. Now this coffee franchise has many outlets all over India and is planning to expand over the years.
Starbucks coffee company :
Globally famous American based coffee company is the world’s largest coffee chain. With more than 20,000 outlets all over the world, it has around 10 outlets in India committed to serve great quality coffee.
Cafe Mocha is one of India’s popular coffee chains which has its inspiration from coffee houses of Morocco and turkey where people gather to spend time over coffee, Hookah and conversations. Indian now enjoys the simple pleasures of life in the cafe with beautiful surrounding, good food and great coffee.
HEALTH EFFECTS :
Coffee consumption has been associated with various health benefits and health risks. In general, moderate consumption, amounting to three or four cups daily, is linked to a reduced risk of cardiovascular diseases, type -2 diabetes mellitus, liver cancer, and Parkinson disease. Research has also linked moderate coffee consumption to a longer life span.
Excessive coffee consumption can cause sleep disturbances, anxiety, jittery sensations, and heartburn. Studies conducted in the 20th century suggested a causative link between coffee and cancer. In 2016, however, the World Health Organization (WHO) removed coffee from the list of possible carcinogens because multiple studies had debunked a possible causative association between coffee consumption and cancer.
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