Fiber-Optic Cables

Physical Description


Physical medium that transports optical data signals from an attached light
source to a receiving device. It is a single continuous strand of glass or plastic
that’s measured in microns (μ) by the size of its outer diameter. The larger the core,
the more light the cable can carry.


It surrounds the Fiber core and serves as a boundary that contains the
light waves and causes the refraction, enabling data to travel throughout the length
of the Fiber segment.


It is a layer of plastic that surrounds the core and cladding to reinforce
and protect the Fiber core. Coatings are measured in microns and can range from
250 to 900 microns.

Strengthening Fibers:-

These components help protect the core against crushing forces and excessive tension during installation.

Cable jacket:-

This is the outer layer of any cable. Most Fiber optic cables have an
orange jacket, although some types can have black or yellow jackets.

Transmission Characteristics

-Optical fiber transmits a signal-encoded beam of light by means of
total internal reflection.
-Total internal reflection can occur in any transparent medium that
has a higher index of refraction than the surrounding medium.
-In effect, the optical fiber acts as a waveguide for frequencies in
the range of about to this covers portions of the infrared and visible
-Act as wave guide for 1014 to 1015 Hz

Optical Fiber Advantages: –

  • Higher Bandwidth
  • Less Signal Attenuation
  • Immunity to Electronic Interface
  • Resistance to Corrosive Material
  • Less Weight
  • Less Number of Repeaters
  • Signal Security

Optical Fiber Disadvantages:-

  • Installation
  • Maintenance
  • Unidirectional Light Propagation
  • Cost