National Human Rights Commission

National Human Rights Commission, a statutory body , was established in 1993 under a legislation enacted by the Parliament namely, the Protection of Human Rights Act, 1993. The commission is the watchdog of Human Rights in the country, that is, the rights related to life, liberty, equality and dignity of the individual guaranteed by the constitution or embodied in the international covenants and enforceable by courts in India.

Composition of the Commission:

The commission is a multi-member body consisting of a chairperson and five members. The chairperson should be a retired Chief Justice of India or judge of the Supreme Court and the members should be a serving or retired judge of the Supreme Court, a serving or retired Chief Justice of a high court and three persons having knowledge of practical experience with respect to human rights.

 In addition to these full time members the commission also has 7 ex-officio members- the chairpersons of National Commission for minorities the National Commission for SCs,the National Commission for STs, the National Commission for Women, the National Commission for OBCs and the National Commission for Protection of Child Rights and Chief Commissioner for Persons with Disabilities.

Functions of the Commission: 

To enquire into any violation of human rights or negligence in the prevention of such violation by a public servant, either suo motu or on a petition presented to it or on an order of a court.

To intervene in any proceeding involving allegations of violation of human rights pending before a court. 

To visit jails and detention places to study the living condition of inmates and make recommendations there on.

To review the constitutional and other legal safeguards for the protection of human rights and recommend measures for the effective implementation.

To review the factors including acts of terrorism that inhibit the enjoyment of human rights and recommend remedial measures.

To study treaties and other international instruments on human rights and make recommendations for their effective implementation.

To undertake and promote research in the field of human rights.

To spread Human Rights literacy among the people and promote research.

To encourage the efforts of NGO working in the field of human rights.

To undertake such other functions as it may be considered necessary for the promotion of human rights.

Performance of the Commission:

The various Human Rights issues taken up by the commission are as follows-:

Abolition of bonded labour.

Functioning of the mental hospitals at Ranchi, Agra and Gwalior .

Functioning of the government protective home (women), Agra.

Issues concerning the right to food.

Review of the child marriage restraint act 1929.

Protocols to the Convention on the Rights of Child.

Preventing employment of children by government servants:Amendment of service rules.

Abolition of child labour

Guidebook for the Media on sexual violence against Children.

Trafficking in women and children: Manual for Judiciary for Gender Sensitization.

Sensitisation programme on Prevention of Sex tourism and Trafficking.

Maternal anaemia and human rights and so on.