Effects of air pollution
- Human health
Impact on plants
- Reduced plant growth
- Damage to leaves of crops plant
- Susceptible to disease, pest, Frost
Impact on materials
- Monument, sites
Impact on health
- By VOCs, suspended particles
- Lung cancer
- Headache, dizziness
- Respiratory diseases
- Asthma – By SO2, smoking
- Bronchitis – NO2
- Influenza, cold- NO2
Effect on human health
- Irritation of eye, nose and throat.
- In severe cases, there may be headache, nausea and loss of coordination and concentration.
- It lowers our resistance to cold and pneumonia.
- CO has affinity towards hemoglobin which cause disturbance in
- transportation of oxygen
- impairing our concentration
- slow our reflexes
- make us confused and sleepy
- feel suffocation.
- SO2 in the air lead to disease of lung and other lung disorders such as wheezing and shortness of breath.
- Chronic respiratory disease- lung cancer, heart disease, damage to the brain liver or kidney.
- Effect of arsenic, Asbestos, Mercury and Benzene can cause mutation, reproduction problems or even cancer.
Effects on plant
- Pollutant enters through stomata.
- Pollutant Erode waxy coating of the leaves called cuticle
- Cuticle prevent excessive water loss and damage from disease pest, drought and Frost.
- Destroy chlorophyll
- Affect photosynthesis
- Damage of leaf structure causes :-
- Necrosis – damage to leaf structure.
- Chlorosis- loss /reduction of chlorophyll causing yellowing of leaves.
- Abscission – Dropping of leave.
- Epinasty – Downward curling of leaves.
- Death of plants.
Effect on aquatic life
- Precipitation in the form of acid rain cause high acidity in freshwater lake.
- Acid rain affect aquatic life especially fish.
- Some of freshwater lake have experienced total fish death.
Effect on material
- Due to corrosiveness, particulates can cause damage to exposed surfaces.
- Ozone causes crackling of rubber.
- SO2 and water form H2S – corrosion as well as disfigurement of Statue made up of limestone or marble.
- Oxides of Nitrogen can cause fading of cotton and Rayon fibres.
Effect on environment
- Pollutants in the presence of Sunlight produce photochemical smog.
- Emission of greenhouse gases tends to global warming.
- Chlorofluorocarbons carbons also cause Ozone layer depletion.
The phenomenon of trapping and reradiating heat by greenhouse gases in the atmosphere is referred to Greenhouse effect.
- Natural greenhouse effect keep Earth warm .
- Global mean temperature of earth is + 15 degree Celsius.
- Water vapour, CO2, H2O, CH4, ozone and cfcs present in minute quantities but maintain the temperature of Earth.
- In the absence of greenhouse gases, the temperature of earth would be much lower than – 20 degree Celsius.
Enhanced greenhouse effect means global warming.