Industrial Revolution is the transition from agricultural economy to an economy dominated by industries and machines. Technology made it easier for people to work with modern approach to working and living. The concept of modern way of living with the help of machines first began in Britain and soon spread to different parts of the world.
The technological changes that were made consisted of – use of iron and steel; use of coal, electricity and petroleum as the new energy sources; new machines were invented like power loom and spinning jenny to increase production with minimum use of man energy; Factory system was adopted where labors were segregated according to their expertise; application of science. These technological advancements made it possible to manufacture more with maximum use of natural resources.
Other socio-economic changes were possible because of industry dominated economy like agricultural improvements, where food was available to people who belonged to non-agricultural society. Economic changed brought about better distribution of wealth among the people. It widely improved the growth of the cities that resulted in provision of better amenities and proper governance. State policies changed and were made more industry intensive. Art and culture had seen major transformation. With the use of machines, workers were more efficient in producing more modern and durable goods.
First Industrial Revolution began in Britain in 1760. Britain is the birthplace of industrial revolution. Britain were more aware of the need of industrial dominance with growing opportunities abroad. Britain had an astounding growth in textile industry. New inventions like power loom, spinning yarn helped weavers and spinners to build a massive industry in Britain and other countries. New techniques introduced were less expensive and highly productive.
Industrial Revolution gave birth to better ways of communication and transportation. Steam engine was the key invention in the revolution. These innovation widely spread across various industries like cotton mills, paper industry, iron industry.
Steam power in mining industries pumped water from deep mines. Factories were not the only result of this revolution, steam ships and railroads were invented too. Steam powered boats and ships were used by British to transport goods through rivers and canals.
Ways of communication had developed with the introduction of telegraphy system for effective communication over greater distances. Banks and financial institutions were significant during this time. Stock exchange was founded during 1770’s in London. British had created industrial dominance over a large part of Europe and other nations.
Belgium transformed economically when William and John Cockerill developed a machine. Resources like iron and coal were majorly used. Textile advancements were seen as well.
France were shifting to strategies to reach industrial revolution. Due to uncertain political situation, huge investments to grow industrial presence in France was not supported. Though, it stayed behind British in creating industrial power in Europe, it still was known to be a well-known revolution.
Germany’s industrial revolution did not start until 1870’s but when its revolution began it became the greatest producers of steel, leaving British behind and dominated chemical industry.
United States industrial revolution rose to power in 19th century. Mid-20th century was the period of industrial revolution in China and India.
Industrialization made transportation and communication simpler but worsened the working conditions of labors. Workers were forced to work for longer hours with lower wages. Small towns were transformed into cities and this transition gave rise to pollution and lack of sanitation. Thus, people opposed technological change in 19th century. To ensure workers interests are met, trade unions were formed and laws were passed to protect poor workers.
Categories: Culture and History