Attribution of compulsory taxes by government is main characteristic of financial system. Taxes are levies in every country to generate revenue. Rudimentarily to raise revenue for government expenditure, and for other purposes as well. Without taxes, government would be unable to meet demands of the societal needs. Taxes are crucial because government collect the revenue and use it to finance social projects.
Tax system based on equality module that rich in the society will pay more than the poor. According to Adam Smith’s four principle in his famous book ‘Wealth of Nations’. Adam Smith stated that taxes should be proportional to income, that is everybody should pay the same rate or percentage of his income as tax.
Another important principle of a accurate tax system as per Adam Smith laid a good deal of stress in his cannon theory of certainty. The tax which each individual is bound to pay ought to be certain and not arbitrary. The time of payment, method of payment, the quantity to be paid ought all to be clear and plain to the contributor and to every other person.
A successful function of an economy requires that the people, especially business class, must be certain about the sum of tax that they have to pay on their income from work or investment. The sum, the time payments of tax should not be certain but the time and manner of it’s payment should also be convenient to the contributor.
The Government has to spend money on collecting taxes levied by it’s collection costs of taxes and nothing to the national product, they should be minimised as far as possible. If the collection costs of a tax are more than the total revenue yielded by it, it is not worth while to levy tax.
Productivity of taxes when levied to generate sufficient revenue from the government. If few taxes imposed yield a sufficient funds for the state, they should be preferred over a large number of small taxes which are expensive in collection. Fair elasticity at any the government need of more funds, it should increase it’s financial resources without incurring any additional cost of collection.
Simplicity of tax system must be simple, plain and intelligible to tax payer. System of taxation should include a large number of taxes that is economical. The government should collect revenue from it’s subjects by levying direct and indirect taxes.
Reforms in Taxation Policy
Tax Policy in India has evolved as an important component of fiscal Policy which had to play core role in the planned development strategy. Taxation Policy cannot be same always it keep on changing with changes in economic scope of the country. To structure and strengthen in taxation Policy various reforms we’re implemented and many are in stream like recent change was good and services tax was country’s biggest reform.
The taxation enquiry commission 1953 was the first comprehensive attempt to review the tax system, it design to structure. Holist tax system for the country; covered central and state also local taxes. In 1985, Government of India introduced long term fiscal policy; this policy led to Modified System of Value Added Tax (MODVAT) in 1986.
Economic crisis of 1991, tax reforms we’re initiated as a part of structural reform process. Tax reform committee recommend major reforms to stabilize economic turbulence in the country. Changes are Reflection of custom duty, Rationalize the capital gain tax and wealth tax, Reduce excise duty, bring the service sector in the VAT tax system, Improving quality of tax Administration, reduction of corporate taxes and reduce the cost of imported inputs.
Reform of Direct Taxes
The government brought consolidated direct taxes. The income tax act was passed in 1961. Direct Taxes Enquiry Committee was constituted to look into affair of direct taxes, tax reform committee (1991) has recommended various point to consolidated direct taxes and task force on tax Policy and administration gave explained path to reform direct taxes in country. National Securities Depository Limited (NSDL) established tax information network to moderate the collection, and monitoring accounting.
Reform of Indirect Tax
The indirect tax Enquiry report in 1977 recommended valuable reform in indirect tax regime. Initiated modified value added tax (MODVAT) for commodities in 1986 to replay the central excise duty, extend to all commodities through Central Value Added Tax (CENVAT). State replace sale tax and have Value added tax.