Today, Environmental pollution is occurring on a vast and unprecedented scale around the globe. People are becoming increasingly aware of the threat posed by environmental pollution and government are enacting legislation to protect the environment.
Environment pollution is the introduction of pollutants into the natural environment, and causes adverse effects to the ecosystem. Today’s pollution is integrally related to economic production, modern technology, life-styles, the sizes of human and animal populations, and a host of other factors. This is the result of increased production of waste products, rapid urbanization, over consumption and over exploitation of natural resources, unplanned sewage and waste disposal from industries and cities etc.
Environmental Pollution may be of the following types : Air pollution , Noise pollution , Water pollution , Soil pollution , Thermal pollution and Radiation pollution. These affect both the living and non-living components of the environment bringing about drastic changes to the physical environment causing community wide problems by polluting the air, water, land , adversely affecting the health of human and animals and damaging plants and property.
Environmental stress on the human body increases with many medical experts fearing a terminal increase in infectious disorders because viruses and other organisms may increase through food processing plants or water treatment as the quality of water and food at the intake deteriorates. Also pollution has caused the deterioration of structural materials like marble and limestone along with having adverse effects on the atmospheric conditions as it is contributes to the depletion of the ozone layer, global warming, acid rain etc.
Factors affecting environmental pollution include:
1.Growing and releasing large number of certain chemicals principally from burning fossil fuels that are now significantly altering the natural systems on a global scale.
2. Population growth is one of the prominent factors that affects the degradation of the environment. This is because as the people multiply and the space available to each individual becomes smaller day by day, so does the demand per person increases day by day along with the increase in amount of waste we throw away leading to an over consumption and over utilization of resources and hence posing a grave threat to the environment.
3.Steady increase in the use and release of toxic substances to the environment. Over the past couple of decades, many national and international projects and programs on river water quality management and assessment on the perspective of conservation were conducted as many lakes and rivers were found to highly polluted with fertilizers, organic wastes, radioactive substances and other chemicals.
Careless management of natural resources is disrupting the ecological process so much that the earth’s life supporting capacity is substantially threatened. Hence , a combined effort to control pollution has to be made by all government agencies, industrialists, agriculturalists, scientists and by every single individual. To address the serious pollution challenges of decades ahead, several large-scale social and technological transitions are needed. These transitions include shifting away from fossil fuels and waste-intensive technologies, bringing our most sophisticated science to bear, altering prices and other economic incentives and progressing to a stable world population.