Hematology is a branch of medicine concerned with the cause, prognosis, treatment, and prevention of diseases related to blood. Some of the tests carried out in this section are PCV, CBC, ESR, ABO blood grouping, Antigen typing, Cross Matching etc..
MATERIALS USED IN HEMATOLOGY
Pipette, Haematocrit centrifuge machine for PCV, Haematocrit reader for PCV, Hematology analyzer for CBC, Microscope, Glass Slides, Electrophoresis Machine, Cover slips, Bunsen Burner, Capillary Tubes, Test Tubes, EDTA, Scissors, Normal Saline, Immersion Oil etc…
COMPLETE BLOOD COUNT (CBC) TEST
Complete Blood Count, CBC is a very common and easy test to determine the total number of different cells present in the patient’s blood. A doctor may order CBC as a normal routine test or if you have an unexplained symptoms of bleeding.
For the test, Blood Sample is collected in the EDTA bottle and is mixed properly with the anticoagulant.
The main equipment used for the CBC test is HEMATOLOGY ANALYZER. The EDTA bottles are put under the hematology analyzer sensitive probe so that the machine can analyze the samples and give the appropriate results.
PACKED VOLUME (PCV) TEST
It is also known as Hematocrit Test. PCV test is a measurement of percentage of blood that is made up of cells. The test value is expressed in percentage. For eg, if the PCV value comes out to be 30% then it means that there are 30ml of cells present in 100ml of blood. The doctor may order for the test if he finds the symptoms related to Anaemia, Polycythaemia or dehydration. The value of PCV rises when the number of RBCs increases or when the total blood volume is reduced.
Newborn infants – 50 – 70%,
Newborn at one week of age – 37 – 49%,
Infant at three month of age – 30 – 36%,
Infant at one year of age – 28 – 45%,
Child at ten years of age – 36 – 40%,
Adult female – 36 – 46%,
Adult male – 38 – 50%
ERYTHROCYTE SEDIMENTATION RATE (ESR)
It is a test that directly or indirectly tests the inflammation in the body. It also measures the rate at which erythrocytes present in the blood sediments. In the test, blood sample is collected by the patient in the EDTA tube and the rate at which RBCs settle down at bottom is measured.
The followings are considered normal ESR test results:
• Women under age 50 : >20mm/hr
• Men under age 50 : >15mm/hr
• Women over age 50 : >30mm/hr
• Men over age 50 : >20mm/hr
• Newborns : >2mm/hr
BLOOD GROUPING TEST
Blood Grouping, generally known as ABO Blood grouping is a test which can determine the patient’s blood group. The blood group of a patient may be A, B, O or AB type. Three different types of serum are used in this test i.e. Anti-A, Anti-B, Anti-D.
In the test, Blood samples are collected from the patient in the EDTA bottle. A sterile glass slide is taken and was labeled as A,B and D. Blood drops were put on the slide in the three different regions. Anti-A , Anti-B and Anti-D serums were added to the blood on the slide at the respective regions and mixed with a toothpick. Agglutination was observed after some time and results were recorded.