As you know, management involves getting work done through the people and by virtue of their positions, managers can issue orders and instructions to their subordinates to get the work done, but it is also necessary to ensure that subordinates put in their maximum effort in performing their tasks and hence managers have to regulate and influence the subordinates behaviour and conduct at work and it is through the leadership role of managers that employees may be induced to perform their duties properly and maintain harmony in group activities. A manager, having formal authority, can direct and guide his subordinates and command their obedience by virtue of his positional power but as a leader, a manager can influence work behaviour by means of his leadership ability to get the cooperation of all members of the group. Leadership may be defined as a process of influencing group activities towards the achievement of certain goals. Thus, the leader is a person in a group who is capable of influencing the group to work willingly and he guides and directs other people and provides purpose and direction to their efforts and according to eminent writers Hodge and Johnson Leadership is “ Leadership is the ability to shape the attitude and behaviour of others whether in formal or informal situations” and According to Livingston Leadership is “ Leadership is the ability to awaken in others the desires to follow a common objective”.
CHARACTERISTICS OF LEADERSHIP
Managerial leadership mainly possess the following characteristics:
- Leadership is needed in all walks of life, such as economical, social, political and industrial spheres.
- It is the duty of the leader to maintain proper discipline among his subordinates.
- It is a continuous process whereby the manager influences, guides and directs the behaviour of subordinates.
- A true leader is responsible for including encouragement and confidence among employees of any organization.
- The success of a manager as a leader depends on the acceptance of his leadership by the subordinates.
- The manager-leader is able to influence his subordinate’s behaviour at work due to the quality of his own behaviour as a leader.
- The leader leads his group with authority and confidence.
- The leader establishes the relationship between an individual and a group around some common interest.
- A true creates a bond of friendship between organization and subordinates.
- Leadership helps others in choosing and attaining specified goals to the maximum satisfaction of both the leader and the follower.
SOME IMPORTANT QUALITIES OF LEADERSHIP
1. Knowledge and intelligence
A leader, to be effective, must have knowledge of group behaviour, human nature and activities involving technical and professional competence. He must have an intelligent perception of human psychology and the ability to think clearly and argue cogently on points of dispute.
2. Integrity and Honesty
A leader should possess a high level of integrity and honesty and he should be a role model regarding ethics and values.
3. Motivation Skills
A leader should be an effective motivator and he should understand the needs of the people and motivate them through satisfying their needs.
Confidence about one’s leadership ability makes it possible for a leader to analyse and face different situations and adopt a suitable style and Lack of self-confidence often prevents managers to adopt a participative style and repose trust in their subordinates.