The number of organisms of the same species that live in a particular geographic area at the same time, with the capability of interbreeding is called population.

Human population refers to a collection of humans living in a particular geographic area. The social science that entails the statistical study of human populations is called Demography. Thus, human population is the number of people in a city or town, region, country or world; population is usually determined by a process called census (a process of collecting, analyzing, compiling and publishing data).

HUMAN POPULATION GROWTH The increase in the number of individuals in a population is population growth. Annual global human population growth amounts to around 83 million or
1.1% per year. In 1800 the global population was 1 billion which has rises to 7.9 billion in 2020. The UN projected population to keep growing, and estimated that by the middle of 2030, 2050 and 2100 the total population will rise to 8.6 billion ,9.8 billion and 11.2 billion respectively. But some academics outside the UN have developed human population models that shows the additional downward pressures on population growth. They also suggested that if this happens then the population would peak before 2100.


The sudden increase in population growth in an unmannered way is called population explosion.

Causes of population explosion:
The causes of population explosion are as follows:-
High Birth Rate
The major cause responsible for the rapid growth of population is high birth rate. In India, the birth rate was found to be 45.8 per thousand during 1891-1900 and 25.8 per thousand in 2001, but still it is considered to be substantially high. This shows in spite of the increase in the widespread propaganda of family planning, family welfare programmes and population education campaigns, instead of a decrease in the birth rate it is increasing.
2. Low Death Rate
The death rate in recent years has phenomenally fallen which is another important factor that leads to the rapid increase in population. The death rate in India was about 8.5 per thousand in 2001. But because of the advancement in medical science, dreadful and chronic diseases such as smallpox, cholera, plague, typhoid are no longer dreaded. Better facilities for sanitation and cleanliness, provision of pre-natal and post-natal care has also reduced infant mortality rate.
3. Early Marriage
The practice of early marriage is another important reason for the rapid increase in population in India. The marriage of girls at an early age results in a longer span for reproductive activity and thus leads to an increase in the number of children.
4. Social and Religious reasons
In India,marriage is a compulsory institution as per social people have to marry.Therefore, people do not hesitate to increase the size of the family as in a joint family everyone takes equal responsibility . Apart from this most people think that it is necessary to give birth to at least one male child so in expectatin of getting a male child, they go on increasing the family size.
5. Poverty
Poverty is another cause of population growth. Children are source for income of the family. So instead of going to school they go to work and thus prove to be an asset for the family. This makes the parents believe that every child born will become an earning member of the family.
6. Standard of living
People whose standard of living is low tend to have more children because an additional child is considered as an asset rather than a liability. Since majority is uneducated and think that every child born will become the earning member of the family they keep on increasing the family size.
7. Illiteracy
Most of the people in India are either illiterate or has the minimum education. This leads them to accept low paying work but fails to support the family resulting poverty. Due to the prevalence of higher rate of illiteracy, there is widespread ignorance in the form of social customs and beliefs like early marriage and preference for a male child. As a result, there is high rate of population growth in the country.

IMPACTS OF POPULATION GROWTH ON ENVIRONMENT: Population growth leads to overconsumption that causes environmental concerns, such as biodiversity loss and climate change, due to resource-intensive human development that exceed planetary boundaries.The impacts of overpopulation and the environment are often interrelated and complex.
Farming impacts
If the population increases the need for food also increases. To meet the need of food intensive farming is done.This includes harmful mechanisation, chemical fertilizers and pesticides that degrades the soil quality causing soil erosion. This also leads to eutrophication that depletes water from oxygen having negative effects. To create new farmland deforestation is done resulting in a negative outcome.
Agriculture is responsible for about 80 percent of deforestation.
Deforestation leads to a reduced ability to capture CO2, resulting in the increase of greenhouse gas problems. Deforestation is also strongly associated with loss of habitat and extinctions.
Human population increase is related to all of these deforestation pressures. The more people we need, the more food, more wood products, and more firewood.
The main cause of eutrophication is agricultural runoff caused by the presence of excessive nutrients in bodies of water.
Eutrophication causes the dense growth of plant life that consumes oxygen, resulting in the death of aquatic animals. Other major sources of eutrophication are industry and sewage disposal–both related to population growth.
Loss of Freshwater
Although there are plenty of water resources,only 2.5 percent of water resources are fresh water, and only a small fraction of it is available as unpolluted for drinking purposes. This is because with the increase of Human population, human waste also increases which pollutes the water making it unsuitable for drinking. Also with the increase in population the need for drinking water increases thus water scarcity also increases.
Global Warming
Human population growth and climate change have grown hand in hand as the use of fossil fuels has exploded to support industrialized societies. More the number of people, the more is the demand for oil, coal, gas, and other energy sources extracted from below the Earth’s surface that spew carbon dioxide (CO2) into the atmosphere when burned, trapping warm air inside like a greenhouse. Most fossil fuel consumption comes from developed countries.It is a sobering thought that most developing nations aspire to similar industrial economies as they experience economic growth, which further escalates CO2 emissions into the atmosphere.

PREVENTION:The population can be controlled by following measures.
A. Social Measure:
Population explosion is a social problem and it is deeply rooted in society.

1. Minimum age of Marriage:
The minimum age of marriage should be raised because fertility depends on age of marriage. Fixed by the law the minimum age of men is 21years found 18 years for women.
2. Raising the Status of Women:
Women should be given opportunities to develop socially and economically.
3. Spread of Education:
The spread of education changes the outlook of people. The educated men will prefer to delay marriage and adopt small family norms. Educated women are health conscious and avoid frequent pregnancies and thus help in lowering birth rate.

4. Adoption:
Some parents who do not have any children are advised to adopt the orphan children. It will be beneficial to orphan children as well as lower the population.

5. Change in Social Outlook:
Social outlook of the people must be changed. Marriage should not be considered as social binding anymore.

6. Social Security:
People should be covered under-social security schemes. So that they do not depend upon others in the event of old age, sickness, unemployment etc. with these facilities they will have no desire for more children.

B. Economic Measures:
1. More employment opportunities:
The first and foremost measure is to raise the employment avenues in rural as well as urban areas.This step can check the population growth.

2. Development of Agriculture and Industry:
If agriculture and industry are properly developed then a large number of people will be employed and when their income increases they would improve their standard of living and adopt small family norms.

3. Standard of Living:
Improved standard of living acts as a deterrent to large family norms. In order to maintain their higher standard of living people prefer to have a small family.

4. Urbanisation:
People in urban areas have a lower birth rate than those living in rural areas. Urbanisation should therefore be encouraged.

C. Other Measures:
1. Late Marriage:
At the age of 30years,marriage should be solemnized. This will reduce the period of reproduction among the females bringing down the birth rate.
2. Self Control:
Self control is a powerful method to control the population. It helps in reducing the birth rate.

3. Family Planning:
This method implies family by choice and not by chance. People can regulate the birth rate by using preventive measures like cheap contraceptive devices for birth control etc.

4. Recreational Facilities:
For many people sex is the only recreation of life which is responsible for a high birt rate. But the birth rate will fall if other recreational activities like cinema, theatre, sports and dance etc are available to the people. As a result of which people will not have sex for recreation reducing in lower birth rate.

5. Publicity:

The communication media like T.V., radio and newspaper will propagate the benefits of the planned family to the uneducated and illiterate persons especially in the rural and backward areas of the country.

6. Incentives:
The govt. can give various types of incentives to the people to adopt birth control measures. This will result in small family norms reducing the birth rate.

7. Employment to Woman:
If women are given employment they will get incentives for their work. This will keep them busy and is a good measure of population control. @track2traininginstitute @track2trainingseminar @edunewsnetwork