MIMO (multiple input, multiple output) is a wireless communications antenna technique that employs multiple antennas at both the source (transmitter) and the destination (receiver).
The same data is broadcast by many antennas along the same route in the same bandwidth in a MIMO system. As a result, each signal travels a different path to the receiving antenna, resulting in more dependable data. The number of sending and receiving antennas also affects the data rate.
It’s a radio communications technology, also known as RF technology.
The new MIMO wireless technology is used in Wi-Fi, LTE (Long Term Evolution), and many other radios, wireless, and RF technologies to deliver higher connection capacity and spectrum efficiency, as well as better link stability.
To reduce mistakes and increase data speed, the antennas at either end of the communications circuit are merged. MIMO is one of many smart antenna technologies, the others being MISO (multiple input, single output) and SIMO (single input, multiple output) (single input, multiple output).
Why we are using MIMO?
A single antenna is used at the source in traditional wireless communications, and another single antenna is used at the destination. This can lead to issues with multipath effects in some situations. When an electromagnetic field (EM field) collides with obstacles like hills, canyons, buildings, and utility lines, the wavefronts disperse and take many pathways to reach their target. Fading, cut-out (cliff effect), and intermittent reception are all difficulties caused by the late arrival of dispersed sections of the signal (picket fencing).
It can slow down data transmission and increase the frequency of mistakes in digital communications systems like wireless Internet. The use of two or more antennas at the source and destination, as well as the transmission of multiple signals (one for each antenna), overcomes the problems caused by multipath wave propagation and can even take advantage of it.
Advantages of MIMO
- Improved Signal Strength: Because MIMO systems use bounced and reflected RF signals, they give better signal strength even when there is no clear line-of-site.
- Higher Throughput: A higher throughput enables higher quality and quantity of video to be transmitted across the network.
- Improved Video or Audio Quality: Using several data streams reduces the number of lost data packets, resulting in improved video or audio quality.
- Increasing Data Rate: The increased number of antennas enables a higher number of routes to be utilized, allowing for considerably more data to be delivered in a shorter amount of time.
- Increasing Basic Link Signal-to-Noise Ratio: One of the major advantages of MIMO systems is that they may be utilized to increase the entire system’s signal-to-noise ratio. This may be pushed to a new level with the usage of massive MIMO.
Disadvantages of MIMO
- Higher Level of Signal Processing: At the transmitter and receiver end, the system needs a higher amount of signal processing.
- Battery Limitation: The increased power consumption is due to the hardware resources. Due to the execution of complex and computationally demanding signal processing algorithms, the battery drains faster. MIMO-based devices’ battery life is reduced as a result.
- Costly: Due to extra hardware and complex software requirements, MIMO-based systems are more expensive than single antenna-based systems.