3D PRINTING

3D Printing is an new and emerging field of biotechnology, it’s a field of revolution in science, the earliest record of 3D printing through the additive process was the Japanese inventor Hideo Kodama in 1981. He created a product that used ultraviolet lights to harden polymers and create solid objects. This is a stepping stone to stereolithography (SLA).Overall 3D printing has changed and improved over the past thirty years. SLA, SLS, and FDM show the history of 3D printing, and thus how it became a vital tool for manufacturing. It allows you to make virtually anything simply by creating a computer file

HOW DOES IT WORKS ?

3D printing, also known as additive manufacturing, is a method of creating a three dimensional object layer-by-layer using a computer created design.3D printing is an additive process whereby layers of material are built up to create a 3D part. This is the opposite of subtractive manufacturing processes, where a final design is cut from a larger block of material. As a result, 3D printing creates less material wastage.

3D Printing Technologies :

There are three broad types of 3D printing technology; sinteringmelting, and stereolithography.

  • Sintering is a technology where the material is heated, but not to the point of melting, to create high resolution items. Metal powder is used for direct metal laser sintering while thermoplastic powders are used for selective laser sintering.
  • Melting methods of 3D printing include powder bed fusion, electron beam melting and direct energy deposition, these use laser, electron beams to print objects by melting the materials together.
  • Stereolithography utilizes photopolymerization to create parts. This technology uses the correct light source to interact with the material in a selective manner to cure and solidify a cross section of the object in thin layers.

3D Printing Processes :

3D printing has been categorised into seven groups by ISO/ASTM 52900 additive manufacturing – general principles – terminology. All forms of 3D printing fall into one of the following types:

  1. Binder Jetting
  2. Direct Energy Deposition
  3. Material Extrusion
  4. Material Jetting
  5. Powder Bed Fusion
  6. Sheet Lamination
  7. VAT Polymerization

Applications

  • Most common application is organ transplantation, and are also used for producing metal orthopedic implants. Due to 3D printing’s capabilities for creating porous surfaces, these types of implants more easily integrate with the patient’s own natural bones, allowing them to grow into the implant.
  • 3D printing applications that are used in construction include extrusion (concrete/cement, wax, foam, and polymers), powder bonding (polymer bond, reactive bond, sintering) and additive welding. 3D printing in construction has a wide array of applications in the private, commercial, industrial and public sectors. Advantages of these technologies include allowing more complexity and accuracy, faster construction, lower labor costs, greater functional integration, and less waste.