5G Networking Technology

What is 5G Network?

In Telecommunications, 5G is the fifth generation technology standard for broadband cellular networks, which cellular phone companies began deploying worldwide in 2019, and is the planned successor to the 4G networks which provide connectivity to most current cell phones. 5G networks are predicted to have more than 1.7 billion subscribers worldwide by 2025, according to the GSM Association. Like its predecessors, 5G networks are cellular networks, in which the service area is divided into small geographical areas called cells. All 5G wireless devices in a cell are connected to the Internet and telephone network by radio waves through a local antenna in the cell.

In telecommunications, 5G is the fifth generation technology standard for broadband cellular networks, which cellular phone companies began deploying worldwide in 2019, and is the planned successor to the 4G networks which provide connectivity to most current cell phones. 5G networks are predicted to have more than 1.7 billion subscribers worldwide by 2025, according to the GSM Association. Like its predecessors, 5G networks are cellular networks, in which the service area is divided into small geographical areas called cells. All 5G wireless devices in a cell are connected to the Internet and telephone network by radio waves through a local antenna in the cell.

HOW DOES 5G WORK?

5G network architecture illustrating 5G and 4G working together, with central and local servers providing faster content to users and low latency applications.

A mobile network has two main components, the ‘Radio Access Network’ and the ‘Core Network’.

The Radio Access Network – consists of various types of facilities including small cells, towers, masts and dedicated in-building and home systems that connect mobile users and wireless devices to the main core network.

Small cells will be a major feature of 5G networks particularly at the new millimetre wave (mmWave) frequencies where the connection range is very short. To provide a continuous connection, small cells will be distributed in clusters depending on where users require connection which will complement the macro network that provides wide-area coverage.

5G Macro Cells will use MIMO (multiple input, multiple output) antennas that have multiple elements or connections to send and receive more data simultaneously. The benefit to users is that more people can simultaneously connect to the network and maintain high throughput.  Where MIMO antennas use very large numbers of antenna elements they are often referred to as ‘massive MIMO’, however, the physical size is similar to existing 3G and 4G base station antennas.

The Core Network – is the mobile exchange and data network that manages all of the mobile voice, data and internet connections. For 5G, the ‘core network’ is being redesigned to better integrate with the internet and cloud based services and also includes distributed servers across the network improving response times (reducing latency).

Many of the advanced features of 5G including network function virtualization and network slicing for different applications and services, will be managed in the core. The following illustration shows examples of local cloud servers providing faster content to users (movie streaming) and low latency applications for vehicle collision avoidance systems.

Example of a local server in a 5G network providing faster connection and lower response times

Network Slicing – enables a smart way to segment the network for a particular industry, business or application. For example emergency services could operate on a network slice independently from other users.

Network Function Virtualization (NVF) – is the ability to instantiate network functions in real time at any desired location within the operator’s cloud platform. Network functions that used to run on dedicated hardware for example a firewall and encryption at business premises can now operate on software on a virtual machine. NVF is crucial to enable the speed efficiency and agility to support new business applications and is an important technology for a 5G ready core.

When a 5G connection is established, the User Equipment (or device) will connect to both the 4G network to provide the control signalling and to the 5G network to help provide the fast data connection by adding to the existing 4G capacity.


Where there is limited 5G coverage, the data is carried on the 4G network providing the continuous connection. Essentially with this design, the 5G network is complementing the existing 4G network

5G Configuration:-

Advantages of 5G Networking:-

High resolution and bi-directional large bandwidth shaping.

Technology to gather all networks on one platform.

More effective and efficient.

Technology to facilitate subscriber supervision tools for the quick action.

Most likely, will provide a huge broadcasting data (in Gigabit), which will support more than 60,000 connections.

Easily manageable with the previous generations.

Technological sound to support heterogeneous services (including private network).

Possible to provide uniform, uninterrupted, and consistent connectivity across the world.

Disadvantages of 5G Networking:-

Technology is still under process and research on its viability is going on.

The speed, this technology is claiming seems difficult to achieve (in future, it might be) because of the incompetent technological support in most parts of the world.

Many of the old devices would not be competent to 5G, hence, all of them need to be replaced with new one expensive deal.

Developing infrastructure needs high cost.

Security and privacy issue yet to be solved.

Conclusion

5G will be able to sustainably satisfy the requirement of the 1000-time traffic growth. 5G will provide users with fiber-like access data rate and “zero” latency user experience. 5G will be capable of connecting 100 billion devices.