Biochip Technology

BIO stands for any biological entity like protein , DNA etc . CHIP stands for computer chip . It is a mate between biological entity and computer chip.

A biochip is a collection of miniaturized test sites (microarrays) arranged on a solid substrate that permits many test to be performed at the same time. A biochip like a computer chip can perform millions of mathematical operations and thousands of biological reactions in few seconds.

Biochip is inserted in to the body with a hypodermic syringe . The biochip uses Radio Frequency Identification (RFID)system that uses low frequency radio signals to communicate between a biochip and reader.

COMPONENTS OF BIOCHIP A biochip implant system consists of two components

1.The Transponder

2.The reader

TRANSPONDER : The transponder consists of 4 parts:

1.computer microchip

2.Antenna coil

3.Tuning capacitor

4.Glass capsule 

COMPUTER MICROCHIP Stores a unique identification number(UID) The UID is Encoded via laser Contains electronic circuitry to transmits ID number to the reader

ANTENNA COIL It is a coil of copper wire around a iron core This tiny radio antenna receives and send signals from the reader

TUNING CAPACITOR Stores the electrical charge send by the reader to activate the transponder The capacitor is tuned to the same frequency of the radio wave send from the reader 

GLASS CAPSULE Made up of soda lime glass. After assembly the capsule is air tightly scaled so no bodily fluids can enter in to the circuit inside

THE READER Consists of an exciter coil which creates an electromagnetic field to excite the implanted biochip. The reader carries a receiving coil that receives the transmitted code or ID number from the biochip. Reader decode the received code and display the result in the

WORKING OF BIOCHIP

Reader generate a low power electromagnetic field to activate the implanted biochip .The biochip sends a unique id to the reader .The reader convert the ID in to digital format, decodes and displays the ID number on the LCD display .This number is then compared with a Database listing of already registered details 

Biochip perform early detection of diseases . The biochip surface contain hundreds of small dots or drops of arrays . Each of these dots contains proteins, antibody or nucleic acid that can attach to a particular DNA . The nucleic acid cause the dots to light up when scanned . The computer algorithm decode the dot pattern produced . These detect the differences in the antibodies of the affected person and detect diseases like cancer, respiratory syndromes etc

Biochip as a glucose detector Biochip underneath the skin sense the glucose level and sends the results back to the system out by Radio frequency communication.

Biochip as a oxygen sensor Biochip can be integrated with oxygen sensor. The s4ms chip is used for sensing oxygen or glucose in blood.

Biochip as an BP sensor Integration of pressure detecting circuits with biochip can make the chip continuously monitor the blood flow rate .

ADVANTAGES

To locate lost people and wandering Alzheimer’s Patients.
To identify person uniquely.
They can perform thousands of biological reactions operations in few seconds.
In monitoring health condition of individuals in which they are specifically employed.
They can perform thousands of biochemical reactions.
Perform early detection of diseases
Can store and update financial, demographic ,medicinal data and so on

DISADVANTAGES

They raise critical issues of personal privacy.
They mark the end of human freedom and dignity.
There is a danger of turning every man women, and Child into a controlled slave.
Through cybernetic biochip implants people will think and act as exactly pre- programmed.

CONCLUSION

The really fascinating idea is under fast track research “but we’re close.” The day in which we have chips embedded in our skins is not too far from now. “This is science fiction stuff.” 

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