Environment protection is practice of protecting the environment, on individual, organizational or governmental & (or) humans. Protection of the environment is needed due to various human activities.

Why laws are implemented?

  • Protect and preserve the environment.
  • The law  prescribes Responsibilities of the State for protecting the national environment.
  • Determine who can use natural resources and on what terms.
  • Create rules for how people can use natural resources.
  • Governments have determined to strengthen their judicial capacity to enforce environmental laws.

Wildlife Act (1972)

The wild life protection Act, 1972 is an Act of the Parliament of India enacted on 9 Sept 1972. It provides for protection of wild animals, birds, plants and for matters connected therewith. It extends to whole India, except Jammu and Kashmir. It has six schedules which give varying degrees of protection.


  1. Animal- Amphibians, birds, mammals
  2. Animal Article- Articles made from wild animal
  3. Hunting- Capturing, Killing, poisoning, trapping, injuring animals etc
  4. Trophy- Whole or part of animal which been preserved.
  5. Wildlife- Any animal, bees, butterflies, crustacean, fish & moths;

Authorities appointed

Central government may appoint A Director of wild life preservation, Assistant Directors of wild life preservation, Other officers & employees as may be necessary.

State government may appoint A chief wild life warden, Wild life wardens, One Honorary wild life warden in each district, Other officers & employees as may be necessary.

Wild life Advisory Board

  • The Act enforces & enables the state governments & the administrators of the union Territories to constitute a wildlife Advisory Board in each state & Union Territory.
  • Areas to be declared as sanctuaries, national parks, or closed areas & their administration.
  • Formulation of policy for protection & conservation of wildlife.
  • Amendment of any schedule.
  • Any other matter referred by State government.

Hunting of wildlife animals

Hunting of wild animals is permitted in certain cases – If the animal has become dangerous to human life or beyond recovery. Killing or wounding in good faith in defense of oneself or any other person.

Grant of permit for special purpose like Education, Scientific research, Scientific management, Collection of specimen for zoos, museums & similar institute, Derivation, collection or preparation of snake- venom for manufacture of life saving drugs.

Protection of specified plants

No person shall Willfully pick, uproot, damage, destroy, acquire, or collect any specified plant from any land & any specified area by Central government. Possess, sell, offer for sale, or transfer by way to gift or otherwise, or transport any specified plant whether alive or dead.


Imprisonment varying from six months up to seven years and/ or ranging from rs. 500 upto not less than rs. 10000 depending upon on the nature or seriousness of the offence committed regarding the specified wildlife.