Human Intelligence And Artificial Intelligence Related

Human Intelligence:-

INTRODUCTION:-

Human intelligence is the intellectual capability of humans, which is marked by complex cognitive feats and high levels of motivation and self-awareness.Through intelligence, humans possess the cognitive abilities to learn, form concepts, understand, apply logic, and reason, including the capacities to recognize patterns, plan, innovate, solve problems, make decisions, retain information, and use language to communicate. There are conflicting ideas about how intelligence is measured, ranging from the idea that intelligence is fixed upon birth, or that it is malleable and can change depending on an individual’s mindset and efforts.Several subcategories of intelligence, such as emotional intelligence or social intelligence, are heavily debated as to whether they are traditional forms of intelligence.They are generally thought to be distinct processes that occur, though there is speculation that they tie into traditional intelligence more than previously suspected.

Various definitions of intelligence tend to converge around similar notions designed to capture the essence of this psychological factor. Jensennotes Carl Bereiter’s definition of intelligence: “what you use when you don’t know what to do” (p 111). After their extensive survey, Snyderman and Rothmanunderscored reasoning, problem solving, and learning as crucial for intelligence. The “mainstream science on intelligence” report coordinated by Gottfredsonhighlights reasoning, planning, solving problems, thinking abstractly, comprehending complex ideas, learning quickly, and learning from experience. The American Psychological Association (APA) report on intelligence acknowledges that “individuals differ from one another in their ability to understand complex ideas, to adapt effectively to the environment, to learn from experience, to engage in various forms of reasoning, to overcome obstacles by taking thought.

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For more than a century, psychologists have developed hundreds of tests for the standardized measurement of intelligence with varying degrees of reliability and validityThe resulting measures allowed for the organization of taxonomies identifying minor and major cognitive abilities. J. B. Carroll,for example, proposed a threestratum theory of intelligence after the extensive reanalysis of more than 400 datasets with thousands of subjects from almost 20 different countries around the world.shows a simplified depiction of the taxonomy of cognitive abilities.

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This survey of factor analytic studies supports the view that intelligence has a hierarchical structure (ie, like a pyramid). There is strong evidence for a factor representing general intelligence (g) located at the apex of the hierarchy (stratum III). This g factor provides an index of the level of difficulty that an individual can handle in performing induction, reasoning, visualization, or language comprehension tests. At a lower order in the hierarchy (stratum II), several broad ability factors are distinguished: fluid intelligence, crystallized intelligence, general memory, visual perception, auditory perception, retrieval, or cognitive speed. Lastly, stratum I is based on specific abilities, such as induction, lexical knowledge, associative memory, spatial relations, general sound discrimination, or ideational fluency.

Artificial Intelligence:-

INTRODUCTION:-

Artificial intelligence (AI), the ability of a digital computer or computer-controlled robot to perform tasks commonly associated with intelligent beings. The term is frequently applied to the project of developing systems endowed with the intellectual processes characteristic of humans, such as the ability to reason, discover meaning, generalize, or learn from past experience. Since the development of the digital computer in the 1940s, it has been demonstrated that computers can be programmed to carry out very complex tasks—as, for example, discovering proofs for mathematical theorems or playing chess—with great proficiency. Still, despite continuing advances in computer processing speed and memory capacity, there are as yet no programs that can match human flexibility over wider domains or in tasks requiring much everyday knowledge. On the other hand, some programs have attained the performance levels of human experts and professionals in performing certain specific tasks, so that artificial intelligence in this limited sense is found in applications as diverse as medical diagnosis, computer search engines, and voice or handwriting recognition.

Guide To Understanding Artificial Intelligence - ReadWrite

Today, Artificial Intelligence is a very popular subject that is widely discussed in the technology and business circles. Many experts and industry analysts argue that AI or machine learning is the future – but if we look around, we are convinced that it’s not the future – it is the present.With the advancement in technology, we are already connected to AI in one way or the other – whether it is Siri, Watson or Alexa. Yes, the technology is in its initial phase and more and more companies are investing resources in machine learning, indicating a robust growth in AI products and apps in the near future.

The following statistics will give you an idea of growth!

– In 2014, more than $300 million was invested in AI startups, showing an increase of 300%, compared to the previous year (Bloomberg)

– By 2018, 6 billion connected devices will proactively ask for support. (Gartner)

– By the end of 2018, “customer digital assistants” will recognize customers by face and voice across channels and partners (Gartner)

–  Artificial intelligence will replace 16% of American jobs by the end of the decade (Forrester)

– 15% of Apple phone owners’ users use Siri’s voice recognition capabilities. (BGR)

Unlike general perception, artificial intelligence is not limited to just IT or technology industry; instead, it is being extensively used in other areas such as medical, business, education, law, and manufacturing.

In the following, we are listing down 9 very intelligent AI solutions that we are using today, marketing machine learning as a present thing – not the future.

  • Siri
  • Tesla
  • Cogito
  •  Netflix
  • Pandora
  •  Nest (Google)
  • Boxever
  • Flying Drones
  • Echo

1. Siri

Siri is one of the most popular personal assistant offered by Apple in iPhone and iPad. The friendly female voice-activated assistant interacts with the user on a daily routine. She assists us to find information, get directions, send messages, make voice calls, open applications and add events to the calendar.Siri uses machine-learning technology in order to get smarter and capable-to-understand natural language questions and requests. It is surely one of the most iconic examples of machine learning abilities of gadgets.

2. Tesla

Not only smartphones but automobiles are also shifting towards Artificial Intelligence. Tesla is something you are missing if you are a car geek. This is one of the best automobiles available until now. The car has not only been able to achieve many accolades but also features like self-driving, predictive capabilities, and absolute technological innovation.If you are a technology geek and dreamt of owning a car like shown in Hollywood movies, Tesla is one you need in your garage. The car is getting smarter day by day through over the air updates.

3. Cogito

Cogito originally co-founded by Dr. Sandy and Joshua is one of the best examples of the behavioral version to improve the intelligence of customer support representatives, currently on the market. The company is a synthesis of machine learning and behavioral science to enhance customer collaboration for phone professionals.Cogito is applicable on millions of voice calls that take place on a daily basis. The AI solution analyzes the human voice and provides real-time guidance to enhance behavior.

5. Pandora

Pandora is one of the most popular and highly demanded tech solutions that exist. It is also called the DNA of music. Depending on 400 musical characteristics, the team of expert musicians individually analyzes the song. The system is also good at recommending the track record for recommending songs that would never get noticed, despite people’s liking.

6. Nest (Google)

Nest was one of the most famous and successful artificial intelligence startups and it was acquired by Google in 2014 for $3.2 billion. The Nest Learning Thermostat uses behavioral algorithms to save energy based on your behavior and schedule.It employs a very intelligent machine learning process that learns the temperature you like and programs itself in about a week. Moreover, it will automatically turn off to save energy, if nobody is at home.In fact, it is a combination of both – artificial intelligence as well as Bluetooth low-energy because some components of this solution will use BLE services and solutions.

7. Boxever

Boxever is a company that heavily relies on machine learning to enhance the customer experience in the travel industry and conveys micro-moments or experiences that can please the customers.Boxover significantly improves customer engagement through machine learning and Artificial Intelligence to rule the playing field, helping customers to find new ways and make memorable journeys.

8. Flying Drones

The flying drones are already shipping products to customers home – though on a test mode. They indicate a powerful machine learning system that can translate the environment into a 3D model through sensors and video cameras.The sensors and cameras are able to notice the position of the drones in the room by attaching them to the ceiling. Trajectory generation algorithm guides the drone on how and where to move. Using a Wi-Fi system, we can control the drones and use them for specific purposes – product delivery, video-making, or news reporting.

9. Echo

Echo was launched by Amazon, which is getting smarter and adding new features. It is a revolutionary product that can help you to search the web for information, schedule appointments, shop, control lights, switches, thermostats, answers questions, reads audiobooks, reports traffic and weather, gives info on local businesses, provides sports scores and schedules, and more using the Alexa Voice Service

Conclusion

Artificial Intelligence is gaining popularity at a quicker pace; influencing the way we live, interact, and improve customer experience. There is much more to come in the coming years with more improvements, development, and governance.

Difference Between Artificial Intelligence and Human Intelligence

Artificial Intelligence: Artificial Intelligence is based on the human insights that can be decided in a way that can machine can effortlessly actualize the tasks, from the basic to those that are indeed more complex. The reason for manufactured insights is learning, problem-solving, reasoning, and perception.
This term may be connected to any machines which show related to a human intellect such as examination and decision-making and increments the efficiency.
AI covers assignments like robotics, control systems, face recognition, scheduling, data mining, and numerous others.

Human Intelligence: Human intelligence or the behaviour of the human being has come to past experiences and the doings based upon situation, environment. And it is completely based upon the ability to change his/her own surroundings through knowledge which we gained.
It gives diverse sorts of information. It can provide data on things related to the particular aptitude and knowledge, which can be another human subject, or, within the case of locators and spies, diplomatic data to which they had to get to. So, after concluding all it can give data on interpersonal connections and arrange of interest.

Below is a table of differences between Artificial intelligence and Human intelligence:

FeatureArtificial IntelligenceHuman Intelligence
EmergenceAI is an advancement made by human insights; its early improvement is credited to Norbert Weiner who theorized on criticism mechanisms.On the other hand, human creatures are made with the intrinsic capacity to think, reason, review, etc.
Pace/Rate of AI and humanAs compared to people, computers can handle more data at a speedier rate. For occurrence, in the event that the human intellect can solve a math problem in 5 minutes, AI can solve 10 problems in a minute.In terms of speed human cannot beat the speed of AI, or, machines.
Decision MakingAI is profoundly objective in choice making because it analyzes based on absolutely accumulated data.Human’s choices may be affected by subjective components which are not based on figures alone.
PerfectionAI frequently produces precise comes about because it capacities based on a set of modified rules.For human insights, there’s more often than not a room for “human error” as certain subtle elements may be missed at one point or the other.
Energy ConsumptionModern computer generally uses 2 watts energy.On the other hand, human brains uses about 25 watts
Modification of AI and HumanAI takes much more time to adjust to unused changes.Human insights can be adaptable in reaction to the changes to its environment. This makes individuals able to memorize and ace different skills.
VersatilityAI can as it were perform less assignments at the same time as a framework can as it were learn duties one at a time.The human judgment skills underpins multitasking as prove by differing and concurrent roles.
Social NetworkingAI has not aced the capacity to choose up on related social and enthusiastic cues.On the other hand, as social creatures, people are much way better at social interaction since they can prepare theoretical data, have self-awareness, and are delicate to others’ feelings.

Reference Links:-

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3181994/

https://www.iqvis.com/blog/9-powerful-examples-of-artificial-intelligence-in-use-today/

https://www.geeksforgeeks.org/difference-between-artificial-intelligence-and-human-intelligence/