WE, THE PEOPLE OF INDIA

What is the first thing that strikes your mind when you read this?

Its the starting of the PREAMBLE of INDIA.

How much do we know about the Preamble of our Country?

What is a Preamble?

  • A preamble is an introductory statement in a document that explains the document’s philosophy and objectives.
  • In a Constitution, it presents the intention of its framers, the history behind its creation, and the core values and principles of the nation.
  • Although not enforceable in court, the Preamble states the objectives of the Constitution, and acts as an aid during the interpretation of Articles when language is found ambiguous.

What is it about?

  • Source of the Constitution
  • Nature of Indian State
  • Statement of its objectives
  • Date of its adoption

Components of Preamble

  • It is indicated by the Preamble that the source of authority of the Constitution lies with the people of India.
  • Preamble declares India to be a sovereign, socialist, secular and democratic republic.
  • The objectives stated by the Preamble are to secure justice, liberty, equality to all citizens and promote fraternity to maintain unity and integrity of the nation.
  • The date of adoption of the preamble is mentioned i.e. November 26, 1949.

Words in bold – The key words

  • We, the people of India: It indicates the ultimate sovereignty of the people of India. Sovereignty means the independent authority of the State, not being subject to the control of any other State or external power.
  • Sovereign: The term means that India has its own independent authority and it is not a dominion of any other external power. In the country, the legislature has the power to make laws which are subject to certain limitations.
  • Socialist: The term means the achievement of socialist ends through democratic means. It holds faith in a mixed economy where both private and public sectors co-exist side by side.
  • It was added in the Preamble by 42nd Amendment, 1976.
  • Secular: The term means that all the religions in India get equal respect, protection and support from the state.
  • It was incorporated in the Preamble by 42nd Constitutional Amendment, 1976.
  • Democratic: The term implies that the Constitution of India has an established form of Constitution which gets its authority from the will of the people expressed in an election.
  • Republic: The term indicates that the head of the state is elected by the people. In India, the President of India is the elected head of the state.
  • Equality: The term ‘Equality’ means no section of society has any special privileges and all the people have given equal opportunities for everything without any discriminations. Everyone is equal before the law.
  • Liberty: The term ‘Liberty’ means freedom for the people to choose their way of life, have political views and behavior in society. Liberty does not mean freedom to do anything, a person can do anything but in the limit set by the law.
  • Fraternity: The term ‘Fraternity’ means a feeling of brotherhood and an emotional attachment with the country and all the people. Fraternity helps to promote dignity and unity in the nation.
  • Justice: It is necessary to maintain order in society that is promised through various provisions of Fundamental Rights and Directive Principles of State Policy provided by the Constitution of India. It comprises three elements, which is social, economic, and political.
    • Social Justice – Social justice means that the Constitution wants to create a society without discrimination on any grounds like caste, creed, gender, religion, etc.
    • Economic Justice – Economic Justice means no discrimination can be caused by people on the basis of their wealth, income, and economic status. Every person must be paid equally for an equal position and all people must get opportunities to earn for their living.
    • Political Justice – Political Justice means all the people have an equal, free and fair right without any discrimination to participate in political opportunities.

Why is Liberty, Equality and Fraternity so important?

It provides a way of life. It includes fraternity, liberty, and equality as the notion of a happy life and which can not be taken from each other.

  • Liberty cannot be divorced from equality, equality cannot be divorced from liberty. Nor can liberty and equality be divorced from fraternity.
  • Without equality, liberty would produce the supremacy of the few over the many.
  • Equality without liberty would kill individual initiative.
  • Without fraternity, liberty would produce the supremacy of the few over the many.
  • Without fraternity, liberty and equality could not become a natural course of things.

Amendment of the Preamble

  • 42nd Amendment Act, 1976: After the judgment of the Kesavanand Bharati case, it was accepted that the preamble is part of the Constitution.
  • The term ‘Socialist’, ‘Secular’, and ‘Integrity’ were added to the preamble through 42nd Amendment Act, 1976.

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