Current Strategies used in Regenerative Medicine

The most common and most used strategy is cell-based therapy. Humans have a complex body structures and parts, having multicellular framework making it complicated and because of this it is difficult to know functions and structural role of each and every cell of the body. The ability of the cells to differentiate into other cells types is defined as “Cell Potency”. There are some cells which lack the ability of differentiation or cell potency.

Cell therapy consists of injecting novel or healthy cells in the pathogenic or injured tissues to just start differentiating there to help the cell grow back like earlier again. Also these cells are difficult to grow in in-vitro conditions as they do not give a considerable amount of cells, also for organs (e.g. liver) with a great replication potential in-vivo, as the cells lose the usual microenvironment needed to proliferate.

Stem cells can proliferate extensively, with the capacity of self-renewing while they maintain their undifferentiated state, until they are induced to differentiate into a specific cell type. Stem cells can be obtained in several ways, most commonly three ways; they are autologous if derived from patient, allogenic f derived from a human donor and xenogeneic if derived from another animals. And here we are more focused on the third type which is the xenogeneic one as animal regeneration plays very effective role in the human regenerative therapy. As mentioned earlier also these adult stem cells are present in various parts of human body also and has a lot of role or we can say differentiation to do in various parts of our body like one the part where the population of stem is higher is bone marrow which regularly differentiates all cells and which is possible with the presence of stem cells in there.

GERM LAYERDERIVED TISSUES AND ORGANS
EctodermEpidermal tissues and nervous system
MesodermBone, blood , cartilage, muscle, urogenital system, serious membranes
EndodermGI tract, airways

Being pluripotent and having other advantages is great but there are some difficulties and issues also related to stem cell therapy which cannot be ignored:

  • CARCINOGENESIS: The stem cells can develop into treaties which give rise to carcinogens which are causative agents of cancers and tumours in the body. They are fatal to another extent.
  • REJECTION: They are allogeneic, but immune responses can be avoided with some new developing technologies, like therapeutic cloning and adult cell reprogramming.
  • Need for feeder cells for tropic support: first time feeder cells were used in mouse fibroblasts, correlated with the risk of xeno-contamination.
  • ETHICAL AND MORAL ISSUES: They represent a notable source of debate, as theirsource is an embryo, which development is interrupted by the aspiration.

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