Psychological Disorders Part 10

Introduction

The Psychological Disorders Part 9 discussed Schizophrenia. It is a lifelong disorder but the intensity and the effect of it can be controlled with the help of planned treatment and various medicines prescribed by the psychologists. This article will discuss Personality Disorders.

Personality Disorders

Personality disorders involve a pattern of maladaptive thoughts, feelings and behaviours that cause serious detriment to various areas of life.

Antisocial Personality Disorder is also known as sociopathy. It is a mental disorder wherein a person continuously shows zero regard for what is right and wrong, in doing so the person also ignores the rights and feelings of other people. People with this disorder have a tendency of antagonizing, manipulating and treating others in a harsh manner. They also tend to show no guilt. The people with this disorder often end up violating the law and hence become criminals. Some of the symptoms are persistent lying, exploiting others, disregard for right and wrong, using wit to manipulate others for personal gain, being cynical, disrespecting others, arrogance, repeatedly violating the rights of others through dishonesty, criminal behaviour, being impulsive, lack of empathy, lack of remorse, aggression, violence, abusive relationships, dangerous behaviour, persistent irresponsibility, not considering negative consequences of their behaviour. Adults with this disorder usually start showing signs by the age of 15. This is a lifelong disorder.

Avoidant Personality Disorder (APD) is a mental disorder in which the person has a pattern of extreme shyness, they feel inadequate and are excessively sensitive to rejection. Symptoms of this personality disorder include fear of rejection, criticism, embarrassment, disapproval, intimate relationships, getting to know new people and fear of being ridiculed. People with this disorder might also have trouble believing someone likes them.

Borderline Personality Disorder is a mental disorder that impacts the way a person thinks and feels about themselves and others. It includes self-image issues and difficulty managing emotions. A person with this disorder will have an intense fear of abandonment or instability, which would make being alone difficult for them. This disorder usually begins by early adulthood. Some of the symptoms are intense fear of abandonment, pattern of unstable intense relationships, periods of stress-related paranoia, rapid changes in self-image, suicidal threats in response to fear of rejection, extreme mood swings, intense anger and an ongoing feeling of emptiness.

Dependent Personality Disorder involves being anxious about being left alone, that is, the inability to be alone. Some of the symptoms are behaving submissively, needing repeated reassurance, relying on others for making decisions, easily being hurt by disapproval, feeling nervous when alone, tendency to be naïve, fear of abandonment and fearing rejection.

Histrionic Personality Disorder involves people having a distorted image of themselves. They base their self-esteem on other’s approval. Some of the symptoms are uncomfortable in situations where they are not the center of attention, display of rapidly shifting emotions, interaction with others involving inappropriate seductive behaviour, consistently using physical attention to get others focus and showcasing exaggerated expression of emotions.

Narcissistic Personality Disorder is a mental disorder in which people have an inflated sense of importance, they need a lot of attention and admiration. They also have a lack of empathy. Some of the symptoms are having a sense of entitlement, expecting to be recognized as superior, exaggerating achievements and talents, belittling others, expecting special favours, arrogance, boastful and insisting on having the best of everything.

Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Disorder involves a person wanting extreme perfectionism, neatness and order. People with this disorder feel the need to impose their standards on others. Some of the symptoms are perfectionism to a point that it is difficult to finish tasks, rigid mannerisms, extreme attention to detail, overwhelming need to be punctual, fixation with lists, hoarding useless items, sense of righteousness and rigid adherence to ethical codes.

Paranoid Personality Disorder involves people being extremely suspicious of other people. Some of the symptoms are believing that people have hidden motives, trouble working with others, quickly becoming hostile, having trouble relaxing, socially isolated, defensive and doubting loyalty of others.

Schizoid Personality Disorder is when people avoid social activities and continuously shy away from interacting with others. They tend to have a limited range of emotional expression. Some of the symptoms are preferring being alone, not enjoying close relationships, feeling like can’t experience pleasure, appearing to lack motivation, feeling no desire for sexual relationships and may seem emotionally cold.

Schizotypal Personality Disorder is a disorder in which people are often described as odd and have very few close relationships. Some of the symptoms are being a loner, flat emotions, excessive social anxiety, belief in special powers, peculiar style of speech and dressing.

Conclusion

There are many kinds of personalities which brings many kinds of personality disorders as well. Personality is known to be fluid but the reason of these disorders includes brain chemistry and genetics because of which they remain permanent. These disorders are very harmful for the people themselves and their loved ones, which makes it important to consult a psychologist to get treatment and reduce the symptoms.

References

Note: this is the last part of the Psychological Disorders series.