Russian Revolution popularly known as the Russian Revolution of 1917 was a set of two revolutions. 1) February Revolution (according to Julian calendar, otherwise in March for other nations). It overthrew the imperial government.
2) October Revolution (according to Julian calendar, otherwise November for other countries). This revolution placed Bolsheviks in power.
By 1917, the bond between the Czar and Russian population had been broken. Governmental corruption and inefficiency were rampant. Tsar’s reactionary policies of Dissolution of Duma (or the Russian parliament) spread dissatisfaction among public.
But it was government’s inefficient prosecution of World War 2 which led to making the revolution inevitable.
i) Autocratic Government and its defects
- Tsar was a despotic ruler. Nicholas II was called ” The Father of Nation”.
- All administrative decisions were taken by him despite the fact that a Parliament existed.
- He was the head of the Church, Commander of Army, etc.
- But the system was defective.
ii) Disability of Bureaucracy’s Army
- Most officers belonged to rich background. They favoured Czar.
- The poor and common men were neglected
- There were no proper facilities for Army.
- This created frustration.
iii) Social Dissatisfaction
- The society was divided into two categories-
- The Haves
- Have nots
- The Haves belonged to elite class, they occupied all administrative positions and favoured Despotism.
- Whereas the the category of Have nots contained all the poverty stricken men deprived of every advantage.
iv) Industrial Revolution
- Russia was an agricultural society.
- Industrialisation replaced labours and annual work.
- This increased further the already high unemployment percentage.
- Therefore the advancing economy contrasted with the miserable lives of workers.
- Meanwhile, the Communist ideology of Karl Marx started to spread.
v) Intellectual Revolution
- Idea of equality nitroduced through French Revolution.
- The Allied powers in the World War I propagated Democracy and Nationalism.
- Western Literature translated several important works and the youth was mad to realise that the root cause of backwardness was Autocracy of Tzar.
Later during the second phase of revolution, Lenin and Trotsky headed and overthrew Kerensky’s government.
Results of revolution
- Lenin became the Prime Minister
- March Revolution removed Czar and gave powers to middle class.
- November Revolution established the government fully supported by laborers.