Organic farming is in a nascent stage in India.About 2.78 million hectare of farmland was under organic cultivation. Organic farming is a production system which avoids or largely excludes the use of synthetically compounded fertilizers, pesticides, growth regulators, genetically modified organisms and livestock food additives. To the maximum extent possible organic farming system rely upon crop rotations, use of crop residues, animal manures, legumes, green manures, off farm organic wastes, biofertilizers, mechanical cultivation, mineral bearing rocks and aspects of biological control to maintain soil productivity and tilth to supply plant nutrients and to control insect, weeds and other pests.
Organic methods can increase farm productivity, repair decades of environmental damage and knit small farm families into more sustainable distribution networks leading to improved food security if they organize themselves in production, certification and marketing. During last few years an increasing number of farmers have shown lack of interest in farming and the people who used to cultivate are migrating to other areas. Organic farming is one way to promote either self-sufficiency or food security. Use of massive inputs of chemical fertilizers and toxic pesticides poisons the land and water heavily. The after-effects of this are severe environmental consequences, including loss of topsoil, decrease in soil fertility, surface and ground water contamination and loss of genetic diversity.
Organic farming which is a holistic production management system that promotes and enhances agro-ecosystem health, including biodiversity, biological cycles, and soil biological activity is hence important. Many studies have shown that organic farming methods can produce even higher yields than conventional methods. Significant difference in soil health indicators such as nitrogen mineralization potential and microbial abundance and diversity, which were higher in the organic farms can also be seen. The increased soil health in organic farms also resulted in considerably lower insect and disease incidence. The emphasis on small-scale integrated farming systems has the potential to revitalize rural areas and their economies.
- Organic farming is environment friendly as there is no usage of chemicals.
- Organic food is more nutritional, healthier and tastes better.
- Organic farming reduces pollution.
- Farmers will have a healthy working environment.
- The demand of organic food is growing faster than supply and thus we can get a good return on investment.
- Organic food is more expensive.The production is less compared to inorganic farming.
- Production costs are higher because farmers need more workers.
- Organic farming cannot produce enough food that the world’s population needs to survive.
- Lack of marketing for organic farming.
- Organic food generally spoil faster.