Ganga, the longest river in India has a unique position in the Indian psyche. Apart from
geographical scale and spread, she has played a vital role in the social, cultural, economic and
political life of the country. The socio-economic changes in the post industrialization era have
adversely affected the flow and quality of the river water leading to pollution of the river. In
order to reduce the pollution of this river the Government of India (GOI) has been
implementing a pollution abatement program since last 25 years. This note is primarily aimed
at presenting an analysis of the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats (SWOT) of
Ganga Action Plans (GAP I and GAP II) — one of the longest and ambitious government
interventions which have significantly influenced policies for controlling water pollution in
India. This report is primarily based on the secondary data collected, mainly in the form of
papers, articles and reports available on the issue of pollution of the river Ganga. The
objective of this report is to consolidate—in a systematic manner—the available knowledge
and insights in order to understand nuances and complexity involved in design,
implementation and monitoring aspects of the Ganga Action Plan (GAP). The second section
of the report presents the need to conduct a SWOT analysis. The third section outlines the
objectives and components of the GAP including the parameters selected to measure the
quality of the water. Section 4 present strengths and weaknesses of the GAP, in a classified
manner, focusing on its design, implementation, monitoring, and regulation aspects of the
GAP. These are drawn from both—reports and articles by government agencies and by
independent researchers. Section 5 and 6 briefly discuss the opportunities and future threats
or challenges of GAP. Finally, the concluding section summarizes the strengths, weaknesses,
opportunities and threats in a tabular form.



Water is typically referred to as polluted when it is impaired by anthropogenic contaminants.
Due to these contaminants it either does not support a human use, such as drinking water, or
undergoes a marked shift in its ability to support its biotic communities, such as fish. Natural
phenomena such as volcanoes, algae blooms, storms, and earthquakes also cause major
changes in water quality and the ecological status of water.


E Water pollution is a major global problem. It requires ongoing evaluation and revision of
water resource policy at all levels (international down to individual aquifers and wells). It has
been suggested that water pollution is the leading worldwide cause of death and diseases.]
Water pollution accounted for the deaths of 1.8 million people in 2015. The organization
Global Oceanic Environmental Survey (GOES) consider water pollution as one of the main
environmental problems that can present a danger for the existence of life on earth in the next
decades. One of the main concerns, is that water pollution, heart phytoplankton who produce
70% of oxygen and remove a large part of carbon dioxide on earth. The organization
proposes a number of measures for fixing the situation, but they should be taken in the next
10 years for being effective. Water pollution in India and China is wide spread. About 90
percent of the water in the cities of China is polluted. In addition to the acute problems of
water pollution in developing countries, developed countries also continue to struggle with
pollution problems. For example, in a report on water quality in the United States in 2009, 44
percent of assessed stream miles, 64 percent of assessed lake acres, and 30 percent of
assessed bays and estuarine square miles were classified as polluted.


The causes of water pollution include a wide range of chemicals and pathogens as well as
physical parameters. Contaminants may include organic and inorganic substances. Elevated
temperatures can also lead to polluted water. A common cause of thermal pollution is the use
of water as a coolant by power plants and industrial manufacturers. Elevated water
temperatures decrease oxygen levels, which can kill fish and alter food chain composition,
reduce species biodiversity, and foster invasion by new thermophilic species. Water pollution
is measured by analysing water samples. Physical, chemical and biological tests can be
conducted. Control of water pollution requires appropriate infrastructure and management
plans. The infrastructure may include wastewater treatment plants. Sewage treatment plants
and industrial wastewater treatment plants are usually required to protect water bodies from
untreated wastewater. Agricultural wastewater treatment for farms, and erosion control at
construction sites can also help prevent water pollution. Nature-based solutions are another
approach to prevent water pollution.[5] Effective control of urban runoff includes reducing speed and quality of flow.


There is a greater association between pollution and health problem. Disease causing
microorganisms are known as pathogens and these pathogens are spreading disease directly
among humans. Some pathogens are worldwide some are found in well-defined area]. Many
water borne diseases are spreading man to man Heavy rainfall and floods are related to
extreme weather and creating different diseases for developed and developing countries [10%
of the population depends on food and vegetables that are grown in contaminated water
[Many waterborne infectious diseases are linked with fecal pollution of water sources and
results in fecal-oral route of infection]. Health risk associated with polluted water includes
different diseases such as respiratory disease, cancer, diarrheal disease, neurological disorder
and cardiovascular disease Nitrogenous chemicals are responsible for cancer and blue baby
syndrom]. Mortality rate due to cancer is higher in rural areas than urban areas because urban
inhabitants use treated water for drinking while rural people don’t have facility of treated
water and use unprocessed water. Poor people are at greater risk of disease due to improper
sanitation, hygiene and water supply . Contaminated water has large negative effects in those
women who are exposed to chemicals during pregnancy; it leads to the increased rate of low
birth weight as a result fetal health is affected Poor quality water destroys the crop production
and infects our food which is hazardous for aquatic life and human life [Pollutants disturb the
food chain and heavy metals, especially iron affects the respiratory system of fishes. An iron
clog in to fish gills and it is lethal to fishes, when these fishes are eaten by human leads to the
major health issue Metal contaminated water leads to hair loss, liver cirrhosis, renal failure and disorder.

Bacterial diseases :-

Untreated drinking water and fecal contamination of water is the major cause of diarrhea.
Campylobacter jejuni spread diarrhea 4% to 15% worldwide. Fever, abdominal pain, nausea,
headache are major symptoms of diarrhea. Good hygienic practices and use of antibiotics can
prevent this disease. Disease cholera is caused by the contaminated water. Vibrio Cholerae is
responsible for this disease. This bacterium produces toxins in digestive tracts. The symptoms
of this disease are watery diarrhea, nausea, vomiting and watery diarrhea leads to dehydration
and renal failure. Anti- microbial treatment is used to get rid of this disease. Shigellosis is a
bacterial disease caused by Shigella bacteria. It affects the digestive tract of humans and
damages the intestinal lining. Watery or bloody diarrhea, abdominal cramps, vomiting and
nausea are symptoms and it can be cured with antibiotics and good hygienic practice.
Salmonellosis infects the intestinal tract. Salmonella bacteria are found in contaminated water
and it results in inflammation of intestine and often death occurs. Antibiotics are prescribed
for this disease.

Viral diseases :-

Hepatitis is a viral disease caused by contaminated water and infects the liver. Jaundice, loss
of appetite, fatigue, discomfort and high fever are symptoms of hepatitis. If it persists for a
long time it may be fatal and results in death. Vaccine is available for hepatitis and by
adopting good hygienic practice; one can get rid of this disease Encephalitis is inflammatory
disease spread by bite of infected mosquitoes. Culex mosquito lays their eggs in
contaminated water. Most people don’t show any symptoms but some symptoms are headache, high fever, muscle stiffness, convulsions however in severe cases coma and
paralysis results. No vaccine is available for this disease Poliomyelitis virus is responsible for
poliomyelitis. Sore throat, fever, nausea, constipation and diarrhea and sometimes paralysis
are symptoms of poliomyelitis. Vaccine is available for this disease [28]. Gastroenteritis is
caused by different viruses including rotaviruses, adenoviruses, calciviruses and Norwalk
virus. Symptoms of gastroenteritis are vomiting, headache and fever. Symptoms appear 1 to 2
days after infecting. Sickness can be dangerous among infants, young children and disabled

Parasitic diseases :-

Cryptosporidiosis is a parasitic disease caused by the cryptosporidium parvum. It is
worldwide disease and symptoms are diarrhea, loose or watery bowls, stomach cramps and
upset stomach [28]. Cryptosporidium is resistant to disinfection and affects immune system
and it is the cause of diarrhoea and vomiting in humans Galloping amoeba is caused by the
Entamoeba histolytica and affects stomach lining. This parasite undergoes cyst and non-cyst
form. Infection occurs when cyst found in contaminated water and it is swallowed.
Symptoms are fever, chills and watery diarrhea According to WHO, diarrheal cases are about
4 billion and results in 2.2 million deathsGiardiasis is caused by Giardia lamblia. Cells of
intestinal lining may become injure. Giardia is resistant to wintry temperature and
disinfectant. Sometimes it is known as travelers’ disease. People suffering from
giardiasis have symptoms bloating, excess gas, watery diarrhea and weight loss.

Much is being done to control, monitor and rectify damage done by pollutants. The problems
are diverse and some are only being recognised but it is important to keep a close control
over pollutants so that we can maintain the environment in an acceptable condition for future
generations. Pollution is a big problem now. A lot of people thinks that they don`t pollute
because they don`t throw trash on the floor, but this is just one little part of pollution.
Pollution is any damage that we cause to the environment and nobody can live without
polluting our planet. If we just think of washing our hands with soap, even with natural soap,
this already is pollution. We know many different kinds of pollution. Air pollution is a well
known type of pollution. It is caused by a lot of things. We pollute the air mostly with air
traffic, mostly planes. Another big pollutant of the air is traffic, but this is getting a bit better,
because cars are becoming better and they pollute a bit less, but on the other site, the number
of…show more content… Land is mostly polluted, because of farming. Big farms use a lot of
pesticides and artificial fertilizers that pollute a lot, and they also pollute the groundwater,
because the rain is washing them through the earth to the groundwater. We also pollute the
land with littering, dangerous chemicals and so on. The effects of land pollution are quite alot.