Revolt of 1857
Before 1857 in 100years of a journey of Mughal emperor is ruled 1757 to set up own dynasty which was long time India and in 1857 British came that was partly they have owned and fight to rule in India and establish east India company which was named by the British. That was the “Revolt” after 1857 started and the modern history began the Mughal emperor became a pensioner of EIC.
In the background, 1757 war Plassey between Mughals and Nawab of Bengal for policies because of British was intervened for east India company by sending the governor leadership of Robert Clive control to seize indirect and French allies which broken by Captain John Munro after that they confirmed that British will go ruled in India.
1765- Treaty of Allahabad
When the British have proved that they are going to rule in India they changed the policies of East India Company and the Rights to collect the Revenue of Bengal, Bihar and Orissa which was called Deewani by the states for a collection that they won in fights and the Nizamat in Bangal which given states that maintain their Law and orders and then it became Dual system of Government this reason made the biggest Revolt of 1857. And the Mughal emperor was shah Alam became a pensioner if east India company that fixed amount given by the British which was 260000 the impact of symbolic importance he has power but the time changed that he got a yearly pensioners system of Diwani is taken charge by East India company they made different policies in revenue changes.
- New land revenue settlements.
- Growth of intermediary.
- Eviction of peasants from their lands.
- Intervention in Tribal regions.
- Destruction of domestic handcraft and promotion of British goods.
That became the experiment that some has to succeed some are not successful but ultimately the situation has come in front of East India company has to appoint new post for their money collection(Tax) because they are not sufficient to handle the work and other became middle class came in the area to give money called money lenders. Imposed different taxes that are become reason farmers faced many problems inland.
The new market also establishes by the British command east India company India became the manufacturer for raw material in the market because they have given rights to take charge and command EIC whatever the market in India like cotton manufacture mills handicraft that tribal made by them all are produced in Britain. This is the only marketing and manufacture India and the production is over the business of profit is now British in hand only one thing comes in mind of drainage of wealth they pay tax to the British government.
These are all the reasons that British pay money for tax and money for their government to east India company this become main benefits of permission given but they also send money to Britain so especially pay tax.
Military Revolt on 29 march 1857 behind reason become revolt because of British they invented the Enfield rifle and they use kind of grease they made of pig or cow that military refuse to use that greased cartridges. 10th may all regiment was also denied and they killed British army officers because they are large in number so they were more powerful on them and run away to Delhi on 11 May came from Meerut they induce in these all problem and movement were started they went to bahadur shah Zafar lead them. That they have their army and army chief bakht khan who was more than 84 years old he told bahadur shah that this is the biggest opportunity for us to make a change they are ready to lead them and they become symbolic. There were many revolts began by different states Lucknow on 4th June begum Hazrat mahal (w/o Nawab Wajid Ali Shah) Brijis Qadir.
SUPPRESSION OF “REVOLT”
On 21th September Delhi Hudson B.S Zafar was arrested and sent to Rangoon and his son were killed in 1852. In Lucknow send Halov Outram to control them but they cannot control but after that Collin Campbell send to kill them and then Begum Hazrat Mahal went to Nepal and Lucknow get occupied by the British and the Kanpur revolt is over won by Campbell tatyatope hanged by them and nana sahib went to Nepal in 1857 revolt has over by east India company. The reason behind the revolt
- Politocal- Doctrine of laps.
- socio-Religious – Christianzation of India, Religious disabilities Act 1856.
- Economic- Drain of wealth
And India in 18th century 1757 – 1764 British kingdom established by the struggle for succession. In 1803 Aurangzeb son MD muazzam shah Alam(65yr old) fight the British won get emperor and he adopted tolerance policies with Hindu kings but those who found them struggle they try to induce the end the make friendly relationship. There are many Mughal emperors and Hindu samaras who ruled between this time. But the British kingdom was the last that occupied India.
The democracy of India is the big challenge that faced the third freedom of the nation. The Indian national movement was an organised mass movement and affected both internal and external. It led to the formation of the Indian national congress in 1885. Struggles of the country have broken the people of India by socio-Cultural, and Economic factors that led to the rise of Nationalism.
Tilak was the first leader who leads this movement. The British colonial authorities called it “The father of the Indian unrest”. He was also given a title name “Lokmanaya” as a leader and an independence activist Mahatma Gandhi called him “The Maker of Modern India”.
Indian National Congress
Tilak encouraged the swadeshi movement and the Boycott movement. The movement consisted of any Indian produce goods. there was a gap which had to be filled by the production of those goods in India itself.
Dadabhai Naroji formed the East India Association in 1867 and Surendranath Banerjee founded Indian National Association in 1876. Seventy- two Indian delegates met in Bombay in 1885 and founded the Indian National Congress.
The demands of education, awareness about the rights, freedom of speech reform and expansion of the legislative council’s development of modern capitalist industries in India.
The national movement in (1858- 1905)
Procrastination by Qween Victoria announced that now east India company will not intertwine in India British has only the power by parliament it changed the whole democracy. growth of nationalism in this index administration. It was British rule and its direct and indirect consequences that provided the material, moral and intellectual conditions for developing a national movement in India. British is the only reason for policies for their backwardness.
The first session will be held in Pune, but it’s changed for a reason and held in Bombay in Gokul das Sanskrit school and the second session Kolkatta by Dadabhai Naroji has been three-time 1886, 1893 and 1906. Total 434 delegates are standing Community and the third session in madras (1887) formed by Badruddin Tyabin. He is the third president of the Indian national congress. He declared that he had denounced all communal Muslims and bring them into the party and introduced resolution no XII at the Allahabad congress.