Menstruation, when we say this word some people will feel awkard or uncomfortable in their point of view. This is a God given gift to every women. They carry a life within them. This cannot be felt by men. But I don’t know why men feel uncomfortable when we talk about Menstruation in front of them. In early days, our grandmother used to say not to talk about this mentruation in front of everyone. In girls life, if the menstrual cycle starts, they are abide by many rules by the elderly. I am happy that mentruation has became a common thing now-a-days. Men also understand women’s pain and feeling during this mentruation. Now, let’s see about menstruation and menstrual hygiene.
During menstrual period, girls will have back pain, periodical cramps, mood swings etc. The child birth pain and periodical pain cannot be explained in words. Understand the pain of your mother or sister or wife and be helpful to them during these menstrual days.
The cyclic events that occurs during the reproductive phase of every women’s life is called Menstrual cycle or period. The menstrual cycle starts at the age of 11-13 which is the onset of puberty that is called, menarche and this menstrual cycle stops around the age of 48-50 years and this is called menopause. This reproductive period is marked by series of events repeated almost every month in physiologically normal women in the form of menstrual flow. This menstrual flows occurs once in 28 days with slight variation.
This menstrual cycle consists 4 phases;
- Menstrual phase
- Follicular phase
- Ovulatory phase
- Luteal phase
These phases shows simultaneous synchorny of events in both ovary and uterus. The changes in ovary and uterus are due to induced pituitary hormones and ovarian hormones. Let’s see about each phase of the menstrual cycle.
This phase is also called destructive phase. The cycle starts with menstrual flow and occurs upto 4-5 days. Menstrual flow is nothing but the breaking of the endometrial lining of the uterus and its blood vessels due to the decreased level of progesterone and estrogen.
The follicular phase extends from 5th day of the cycke until ovulation. During this phase, the primary follicle in the ovary matures and the endometrium regenerates through proliferation. As said earlier, these changes are due the hormones induced by the secretion of gonadotropins. It stimulates follicular development and secretion of estrogen.
The induced hormones like Follicular Stimulating Hormone and Lutenizing Hormone attain its peak level in the 14th day of the menstrual cycle. In this phase ovum is released into the peritoneal cavity.
During luteal phase, the remaining part of the Graafian follicle is transformed into a transitory endocrine gland called corpus luteum. The corpus luteum secretes large amount of progesterone which is essential for the maintenance of the endometrium.
If fertilization takes place, it gives way to the implantation of the fertilized ovum. Menstruation occurs only if the released ovum is not fertilized. The absence of menstruation maybe an indicator of pregnancy. This could be also due to stress and anaemia. If you have irregular or absence of period, consult a doctor immediately.
The health of every individual depends on the cleanliness of oneself. However, women should be hygienic in order to be healthy. This hygiene keep them free from skin and genitourinatory tract infection. It is vital for good health, well-being, dignity, empowerment and productivity of women. The impact of poor menstrual hygiene on girls is increased stress levels, fear and embarrassment during menstruation. This can keep girls inactive during such periods leading to absenteeism from school.
The basic menstrual hygiene ways are
- Sanitary pads should be changed regularly, to avoid infections due to microbes from vagina and sweat from genitals.
- Use of warm water to clean genitals helps to get rid of menstrual cramps.
- Wearing loose clothing rather than tight fitting clothes will ensure the airflow around the genitals and prevent sweating.
- The sanitary pad and tampons should be wrapped properly and discarded because they can spread infections.
- Sanitary pad or tampon should not be flushed down the toilet.
- Napkin incinerators are to be used properly for disposal of used napkins.
I hope you would have some basic knowledge about menstruation and its hygiene. There are still people who don’t have menstrual education and awareness about the infections caused without menstrual and napkin hygiene.