vitamins: Sources,Physiological role and Deficiency.
In our daily life, we take various types of food material. For our good and healthy life, our diet should be rich in all elements such as minerals, proteins, carbohydrates, vitamins, etc. A good diet gives us healthy life. so let’s know about vitamins…..
Vitamins are organic molecules that are essential to the body. they are micronutrients needed in small quantities for the proper functioning of the body. it is not synthesized in the body therefore taken from the diet. there are different vitamins essential for our body. they are vitamins- A, B, C, D, E, K. they are divided into two types- 1)fat-soluble vitamins: A, D, K, E. 2) Water-soluble vitamins: B, C.lets see in detail…
1)Vitamin A= It is also called Retinol. It is present in marine fish(cod, shark) liver oil, Egg yolk, Milk, Butter, Papaya, carrots. Its physiological role in the body is to maintain the visual cycle. Retinal is important for pigmentation in the eyes. it also plays a vital role in spermatogenesis. the deficiency of vitamin A causes Xerosis of the eye,bitot’s spot, phrynoderma (dry skin), sterility in males.
2)Vitamin E= Its other name is alpha-tocopherol. it is obtained from Wheat germ oil, cereals, nuts, spinach. Physiological role in antioxidant and also avoid free radicle damage, keep immunity strong. A deficiency causes abortion, degenerative changes in the spinal cord, neuromuscular and neurological defects.
3)Vitamin D= It is a group of two vitamins -D2(Calciferol), D3(Cholecalciferol). Calciferol is obtained from yeast, bread, milk while cholecalciferol is obtained from UV rays. Calciferolhelps help in the absorption of calcium and phosphorus from the intestine. It is also important to strengthen the bone. Deficiency results in Ricketts in children and osteoporosis in adults.
4)Vitamin K= There is a combination of three vitamins- K1(phytonadione), K2(menaquinone), K3(synthetic). K1 is obtained from Alphalfa grass and K2 is obtained from Saradine sea fish. It plays important role in clotting. It helps in the synthesis of Prothrombin, Factor VII, IX, X. its deficiency causes Bleeding tendency(ecchymoses) and haematuria.
1) Vitamin B= There are various subclasses – B1(Thiamine), B2(Riboflavin), B3(Niacin), B6(Pyridoxine), B12(cyanocobalamin).
- Thiamine is obtained from cereals, nuts, pulses. it bplays major role in carbohydrate metabolism. its deficiency cause dry or wet beriberi.
- Riboflavin is present in Milk, leafy vegetables, Egg yolk. sore and raw toughs, dry skin, loss of hair results due to deficiency.
- Niacin present in fish, meat, husk, nut. It play major role in Elecron transport chain. Deficiency cause Pllegra, dermatitis, dementia.
- Pyridoxine is rich source in soyabean, egg yolk, meat. Its physiological role in synthesisi of non essential amino acid. Deficiency shows Seborrheic dermatitis,glottis’s.
- cyanocobalamin derived from fish, egg, animal liver. This nutrient helps to keep blood and nerve cells healthy. The deficiency results in anemia.
2)Vitamin C= it is ascorbic acid. It is rich in citrus fruit such as lemon, oranges. other sources are tomatoes, chilies, cabbages. its physiological role is an oxidative reaction. its deficiency cause scurvy.
Vitamins are micronutrients essential for the body. Daily intake should be from a daily diet.