Urbanization refers to moving rural population in urban areas. With the gradual growth of the economy, the process of urbanization depends on the shift of surplus population from rural to urban areas along with the growth of some industrialized urban centres.
People from isolated village started to move towards urbanized centres in search of job, established industries and other activities constantly offer job opportunities to those people migrating to cities.
Urbanization in india
In India, an increasing trends towards urbanization has been recorded from the very beginning of this era. The census data on the rural – urban mixture reveal a continuous rise in the rate of urbanization in india.
Causes of Rapid Urbanization in India
Expansion in government services as a result of the second World War.
Migration of people during the partition of India and Industrial Revolution.
Eleventh Five year Plan that aimed at urbanization for the economic development of India.
Growth of Private sector after 1990.
Infrastructure facilities in the urban areas.
Land fragmentation, village being erased due to roads and highway construction, dam construction and other activities.
Agriculture is the primary source of livelihood, but now it is not profitable due to several reasons such as drought low productivity. These situations are forcibly the people of rural areas to migrate towards cities.
Growth of employment in cities is attracting people from rural areas as well as smaller cities to large towns. According to Mckinsey India’s urban population will grow from 340 million in 2008 to 590 million in 2030.
Therefore, it is being driven by economic compulsions where people move out for economic advancement to areas offering better job opportunities.
Urban Local Government
The concept of local self Government is based on the assumption that there are certain basic human needs having direct bearing on the lives of the individual and the community as a whole. The Governance of an urban areas by the local people through their elected representative is called urban Governance. Urban local government in India was constitutionalised through the 74th constitutional Amendment Act of 1992. The Ministry at Central level dealt with urban local government such as Ministry of Urban development, Ministry of Defense in the case of cantonment Boards, Ministry of Home Affair in the case of Union Territories.
The Institution of Urban local Government originated and developed in modern India during the period of British rule. 1667 Municipal Corporation Madras, 1726, Municipal Corporation Bombay, Calcutta. 1870 Lord Mayo resolution on financial decentralization. 1882 Lord Rippon resolution, which is held as the Magna Carta of local Self Government. Rippon is remembered as father of local Self Government. 1919 Dyarchical scheme introduced in provinces.1924 Cantonments Act was passed and 1935 Provincial autonomy introduced.
73rd Amendment Act of 1992
The act has added part IX – A to the Constitution of India. It is entitled as the municipalities and consists of provision from Article 243P to 243G. This act added 12th schedule to the Constitution. Indian long history of Urban Municipal Governance was characterised by some structural infirmities & affected it’s performance. Municipal bodies we’re delegate limited powers with restricted autonomy.
The 74th act gave constitutional status to the municipalities which has brought under the preview of judicial part of the Constitution. The act aim at revitalizing and strong thing the urban Government so that they function effectively as units of self Government.
The members of municipality are directly elected by people of the area. The territorial constituency of municipality is known as wards. The state legislature determine the manner of election of chairperson and representation of knowledgeable person and member of parliament to municipality.
The salient features of the 74th Amendment Act are: 1) Reservation of seats for SC/ST and women 2) Term of Municipalities 3) Ward Committee 4) Disqualification 5) Metropolitan Planning committee
Municipal Corporation are created for the administration’ of big cities like Delhi, Mumbai, Kolkata. They are established in the states by the acts of the concerned state legislature and in Union Territories by the acts of parliament of India. A municipal corporation has three authorities like – The council, standing committee and the commissioner. The corporation council consists of councillors directly elected by the people.
Corporation council is head by a mayor assisted by a deputy mayor. He is elected for a 1 year renewable term. The standing committee are created to facilitate the working of the corporation, which is large deals with taxation and finance.
Supply of pure water, construction and maintenance of Public streets, cleaning places, Public streets, sewers, Naming streets and numbering houses, lighting and watering of Public streets. Regulation of offensive, dangerous or obnoxious trades, Maintenance or support of Public hospitals, establishment of primary school are the following functions of Municipal Corporation.
It is an Institution of local self Government in india. It is also known as Nagar palika. It is constituted in cities having population around 1 – 3 lakh. These are basically established for the administration of district level cities. The municipal Council is entrusted with the development related matters of Municipal Corporation areas and providing basic civic amenities. The services provided by the MC some of them are :
Construction, maintenance and cleaning of drains and drainage works and of public latrines, urinals. Supply water for public and private purposes. Scavenging, removal of garbage, survey of building and lands, maintenance and development of the value of all properties, maintenance of monuments and memorial vested in local authority etc.
NP also known as notified area Council or city council helps in the transformation of rural and urban. It has a committee consisting of a chairman/mayor along with Ward members. The members are choosen via direct election and have a tenure of 5 years. Following are functions of Nagar panchayat such as essential services and facilities to the urban area, sanitation programme, street lighting and providing roads in wards and main roads, school in urban areas, water supply to wards of Urban areas, clean the drainage system, culverts for underground drainage system, programme for adult literacy and run city libraries and death & birth records.