Government regulate the business activities of private enterprises for direct participation in business and set up public enterprises in areas like coal industry, oil industry, steel manufacturing, banking, insurance etc. These units are not owned by Central, State or local Government, managed and controlled by them and are termed as public sector enterprises.
Business activities were occupied to individual and organizations and the government was taking care of essential services such as railways, electricity supply, postal services etc. Private sector did not take interest in areas where investment is high and profit margin is low, such as machine building, infrastructure, oil exploration etc. Industries were also focus in some region that have natural advantages like availability of raw material, skilled labour.
Public sector enterprises defined as any commercial or industrial undertaking owned and managed by the government with a view to maximize social welfare and upholds the Public interest. Public enterprises consist of nationalized private sector enterprises such as banks life insurance of India and enterprise set up by Hindustan, Gas Authority of India limited (GAIL) and State trading Corporation (STC).
During the colonial period, economic activities were limited to essential support facilitate for the maintenance and continued Growth of economy and defense such as railway transport, electricity project, ordinance factories, irrigation works, education and training Institutions.
The public sector to control certain key point in the economy such as the financial institutions for collecting saving of millions of individual and organizations making these available for investment.
By 1980s, besides traditional fields, the major banks and financial institutions, electricity undertakings, shipping, civil aviation, bus services and big enterprises in significance modern industries such as iron and steel, heavy machine building, light engineering, electronic, petroleum and Petro chemical, fertilizers, pharmaceuticals, cotton textiles and cement. The growth of investment in the central undertakings by way of contribution to share capital and long term loans. In addition, the central government had made large investment in departmentally run undertakings.
Characteristics of Public Enterprises
The public enterprises are owned and managed by the central or state Government or local authority. The government may either own the public enterprises or the ownership partly be with the government and with the private industrialists and the public. The control, management and ownership remain primarily with the government e.g, Oil and Natural Gas Corporation Limited (ONGC) and National Thermal Power Corporation (NTPC).
Public enterprises get their capital from government funds and the government has to make provision for their capital in it’s budget. Public enterprises are not move by profit motive. Their major focus on providing services or commodities at reasonable prices. GAIL Gas Authority of India and Indian Oil Corporation make available petroleum on subsidised price to the public.
Public sector enterprises concentrate on providing public utility services like transport, electricity, telecommunication etc. PE are governed by the government and are accountable to the legislature. The government rules and regulations force the Public enterprises to observe excessive formalities in their operations.
Role of Public Sector Undertaking in Public Policy
The public sector enterprises has been important role of achieving economic growth with social justice, generating larger social gains and strengthening country’s economy by removing regional disparities and promoting balanced development in different parts of the country. The impact of public sector undertaking on the regional development.
PSE through useful help and services in the development of human resources in underdeveloped areas. Investment in human capital is considered an essential ingredient of development planning. Such development is only possible if rural demographics ready to cope with modern knowledge and science & technology.
A large number of PSU have been set up in the regions or districts in order to capitalize the rural labour by equipping them with vocational education, technical training and managerial skills. The reason behind it is to transform the unemployed rural people to get self motivated and self inspired employment avenues in local areas economies.
PSU working as a vehicle of communication have taken the new learning to village and acted as agents for introducing changes in existing practices, initiating commercial use of appropriate village technologies in agriculture and allied activities, village artisan and handicrafts and local village industry by inducing use of productivity enhancing equipment and light machinery.
Improvement in economic infrastructure in the areas where policies cannot reach through PSU and active participation of PSU. Constructing and improving connection between village to make accessibility by modern means of transport, electricity for domestic use as well as for commercial and Industrial.