The district is the geographical unit where the complete instrument of administration can be traced. It is the cutting edge level of administration that policies are transformed into action. The success or failure of policies are dependent on the efficiency of District Administration.
It is impossible for union government to manage entire nation in one unit so it is important to distribute the power into different units. Every state is divided into a number of administrative sub centres to needs of the people in the areas comprised in small areas.
According to Willoughby, field administrative organization falls under either of the patterns of areas including territorial, functional or unitary and multiple areas. These areas organized in horizontally , vertically and hierarchically. The office incharge of the area is the head, the head of all other specialized units at that level are his subordinates.
All communication from the field station to the head office and back are routed through him and he has a responsibility for the acts of all other departmental heads. The position is very different in a multiple or functional form of organization, where different division or branches of the headquarters office have their equitable field establishment at different areas and maintain direct contact with them. There is no coordinating or integrating authority at the area level, each service or agency is treated as an independent entity unrelated to other services the line of authority runs direct by from it’s headquarter office.
Luther Gulick described three patterns of field organization as all finger, short Arms long fingers and long Arms short finger. All fingers agencies are controlled by the headquarters office directly. Short arms long fingers patterns, agencies are controlled by the division, they communicate with control field officers in their respective areas.
Long Arms short fingers pattern geographical sub division, to these sub division are located in the central office itself each with an extensive staff and they communicate with the central field office in three respective areas. These districts split into tehsils/Taluks, headed by tehsildars, tehsil lies the pargana/revenue circle under the charge of revenue inspector then primary unit, village official is the patwari or Lekhpal or village accountant.
Constitution of India did not mentioned the term ‘district’ excluding Article 233 mentioned in term of ‘district judge’s. The 73th and 74th Amendment Act of 1992 including the term district at several places under Part IX and IX A dealt with panchayat and muncipalities respectively.
District Administration is the total management of public affairs, within this unit. DA is that portion of Public Administration which functions within the territorial limits of a district as explained by S S khera who is prominent figure in describing District Administration.
District as a unit of administration has a long history from the time of Medieval times. District called Sarkar and headed by Karori faujdar under the direct control of subedar. District administration and the office of district collector existence during the of British East India Company.
After independence the office of the District collector suffered in order to maintain status and authority due to expansion of governmental activities and emerged as Panchayati Raj, replacement of ICS into IAS, influence of pressure Group and Growth of Commissionerate system.
The programme are executed under the supervision direction and leadership of the collector. Development had a top down approach where people brought under the umbrella of one or in other development Programme. District collector’s main responsibility was identification of beneficiary in the development activities. District collector regulate the development.
The task of good District Collector is the ability to work with all people. This requires good human resource management, strategic thinking and financial management. Village Panchayat refer to the councils of the local government of India, look after the administrative affairs of the rural regions. The local government of India are self sufficient and self enabled units that work under the State Government of India. The 73rd and 74th Amendment Act 1992 attach with development of city and village councils in India. Local government have regular elections, fixed five year term and review and augmentation of finance by the State Finance commission.