Economics

An Analytical Approximation for Option Price under the Affine GARCH Model – A Comparison with the Closed-Form Solution of Heston-Nandi

In the option pricing theory, two important approaches have been developed to evaluate the prices of a European option. The first approach develops an almost closed-form option pricing formula under a specific GARCH process (Heston & Nandi, 2000). The second approach develops an analytical approximation for computing European option prices […]

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On Volatility Trading & Option Greeks

Commensurate with this exponential growth in the depth and breadth of derivative markets and the range of financial products traded therein, there needs to be developed a comprehensive mathematical framework to support the, hitherto, empirically established features of trading strategies involving these instruments. It is the objective of this article, […]

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Evaluation of Value at Risk in Emerging Markets

Financial institutions have witnessed numerous episodes of financial crises all over the world during the last four decades. The researchers, academicians and policy makers in the field of finance studied these episodes extensively and to mitigate the risk involved in these crises have proposed several measures in the financial literature, […]

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Relationship between Code of Corporate Governance and Corporate Financial Performance (An Empirical Study of Food Companies Listed on KSE)

The crucial role that implementation of Code of Corporate Governance plays on protecting the rights of minorities, shareholders, local as well as foreign investors cannot be denied. Companies all over the world are required to implement their respective Code of Corporate Governance for avoiding agency conflicts between companies management and […]

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Exploratory Factor Analysis for the Identification of Dimensions Which Cause Non-Performing Assets in Non-Banking Financial Institutions

According to Reserve Bank of India (RBI) Governor, public sector banks are having stressed accounts equivalent to over Rs.7 lakh Crores including non-performing assets (NPA) and restructured loans (News Asia, 2016). RBI has also pointed out that gross NPA of public sector banks has risen to 6.03% during June 2015 […]

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Do IPOs in Cold Markets Provide Better Returns

Significant listing day returns for IPOs is a phenomenon that is observed when companies go public. Using a larger timeframe (1999-2014), we attempt to determine the long-run performance of underpriced IPOs issued in an emerging economy such as India during the hot and cold IPO markets for 36-months. The results […]

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Financial Factors Determining CAREs Ratings

Rating agencies evaluate a number of qualitative and quantitative factors while assigning rating to a particular company. Standard mathematical formulas do not exist for determining credit ratings. Instead, credit rating agencies use their experience and judgement in assigning ratings. What factors rating agencies consider significant in providing ratings to the […]

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