CHANDRAYAN–1 and CHANDRAYAAN-2


Our country launched a satellite Chandrayaan–1 (Meaning moon Vehicle) on 22nd October 2008 to study about the moon. It was launched from Sathish Dhawan Space Center in Sriharikota, Andhra Pradesh with the help of PSLV (Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle) rocket. It was put into the lunar orbit on 8th November 2008.


The spacecraft was orbiting around the moon at a height of 100 km from the lunar surface. It collected the chemical, the mineralogical and the geological information about the moon. This mission was a major boost for the Indian space programs and helped to develop its own technology to explore the moon. Chandrayaan–1 was operated for 312 days and achieved 95% of its objectives. The scientists lost their communication with the space craft on 28th August 2009. On the successful completion of all the major objectives, the mission was concluded.


ONJECTIVES OF CHANDRAYAAN – 1
To find the possibility of water on the Moon.
To find the elements of matter on the Moon.
To search for the existence of Helium – 3.
To make a 3-dimensional atlas of the Moon.
To study about the evolution of the solar system.

ACHIEVMENTS OF CHANDRAYAAN-1
The discovery of presence of water molecules in the lunar soil.
Chandrayaan–1 confirmed that the Moon was completely molten once.
Chandrayaan–1 has recorded images of the landing site of the US space-craft Apollo-15 and Apollo-11.
It has provided high-resolution spectral data on the mineralogy of the moon.
The existence of aluminium, magnesium and silicon were picked up the X-ray camera.
More than 40,000 images have been transmitted by the chandrayaan-1 camera in 75 days.
The acquired images of peaks and craters show that the Moon mostly consists of craters.
Chandrayaan-1 beamed back its first images of the Earth in its entirety.
Chandrayaan-1 has discovered large caves on the lunar surface that can act as human shelter on the Moon.

CHANDRAYAAN-2
ISRO has currently launched a follow on mission to Chandrayaan-1 named as Chandrayaan-2 on 22nd July 2019. Chandrayaan-2 mission is highly complex mission compared to previous missions of ISRO. It brought together an Orbiter, Lander and Rover. It aims to explore South pole of the moon because the surface area the south pole remines in shadow much larger than that of North Pole.


ORBITER
It revolves around the Moon and it is capable of communicating with Indian Deep Space Network (IDSN) at Bylalu as well as Vikram Lander.


LANDER
It is named as Vikram in the memory of Dr.Vikram A.Sarabhai, the father of Indian space program.


ROVER
It is a six wheeled robotic vehicle named as ‘Pragyan’ (Sanskrit word) that means wisdom. Chandrayaan-2 was successfully inserted into the lunar orbit on 20th August 2019. In the final tage of the mission, just 2.1 km above the lunar surface, Lander ‘Vikram’ lost its communication with the ground station on 7th September 2019. But the Orbiter continues its work successfully.

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